. The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets
X/2.Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020
The Conference of the Parties,
Recalling its decision IX/9, in which it requested the Working Group on Review of Implementation, at its third meeting, to prepare, for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its tenth meeting, a revised and updated Strategic Plan including a revised biodiversity target,
Welcoming the submissions by Parties and observers providing views on the updating and revision of the Strategic Plan and the various consultations that have been convened by Parties, the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Countdown 2010, and other partners, including regional consultations, the Informal Expert Workshop on the Updating of the Strategic Plan of the Convention for the Post-2010 Period held in London from 18 to 20 January 2010 and the sixth United Nations/Norway Trondheim Conference on Biodiversity, held in Trondheim, Norway, from 1 to 5 February 2010,
Expressing its gratitude to the Governments of Belgium, Brazil, Egypt, Ethiopia, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, Norway, Panama, Peru, Sweden, and the United Kingdom for hosting these consultations, as well as for their financial contributions,
Welcoming also the participation of various bodies of the United Nations system, convened through the Environmental Management Group, and of the scientific community, convened through DIVERSITAS, the Inter-Academy Panel of the National Academies of Science and other channels,
Recognizing that the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 represents a useful flexible framework that is relevant to all biodiversity-related conventions,
Noting with concern the conclusions of the third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook, which confirm that the 2010 biodiversity target has not been met in full, and also noting that the Outlook assesses the obstacles that have prevented the target from being met, analyses future scenarios for biodiversity and reviews possible actions that might be taken to reduce future loss,
Welcoming also the reports of the study on The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity,
1.Adopts the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, with its Aichi Targets, annexed to the present decision;
2.Takes note of the provisional technical rationale, possible indicators and suggested milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets contained in the note by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/COP/10/9)2
3.Urges Parties and other Governments, with the support of intergovernmental and other organizations, as appropriate, to implement the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and in particular to:
(a)Enable participation at all levels to foster the full and effective contributions of women, indigenous and local communities, civil-society organizations, the private sector and stakeholders from all other sectors in the full implementation of the objectives of the Convention and the Strategic Plan;
(b)Develop national and regional targets, using the Strategic Plan and its Aichi Targets, as a flexible framework, in accordance with national priorities and capacities and taking into account both the global targets and the status and trends of biological diversity in the country, and the resources provided through the strategy for resource mobilization, with a view to contributing to collective global efforts to reach the global targets, and report thereon to the Conference of the Parties at its eleventh meeting;
(c)Review, and as appropriate update and revise, their national biodiversity strategies and action plans, in line with the Strategic Plan and the guidance adopted in decision IX/9, including by integrating their national targets into their national biodiversity strategies and action plans, adopted as a policy instrument, and report thereon to the Conference of the Parties at its eleventh or twelfth meeting;
(d)Use the revised and updated national biodiversity strategies and action plans as effective instruments for the integration of biodiversity targets into national development and poverty reduction policies and strategies, national accounting, as appropriate, economic sectors and spatial planning processes, by Government and the private sector at all levels;
(e)Monitor and review the implementation of their national biodiversity strategies and action plans in accordance with the Strategic Plan and their national targets making use of the set of indicators developed for the Strategic Plan as a flexible framework and to report to the Conference of the Parties through their fifth and sixth national reports and any other means to be decided by the Conference of the Parties;
(f)Support the updating of national biodiversity strategies and action plans as effective instruments to promote the implementation of the Strategic Plan and mainstreaming of biodiversity at the national level, taking into account synergies among the biodiversity-related conventions in a manner consistent with their respective mandates;
(g)Promote the generation and use of scientific information, develop methodologies and initiatives to monitor status and trends of biodiversity and ecosystem services, share data, develop indicators and measures, and undertake regular and timely assessments, to underpin the proposed new intergovernmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services (IPBES) and an effective Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice in order to strengthen the science policy interface, thereby enhancing the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
4.Invites Parties to take note of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,3 in the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, as appropriate, and in accordance with national legislation;
5.Urges regional organizations to consider the development or updating of regional biodiversity strategies, as appropriate, including agreeing on regional targets, as a means of complementing and supporting national actions and of contributing to the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
6.Emphasizes the need for capacity-building activities and the effective sharing of knowledge, consistent with decisions VIII/8, IX/8 and other relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties, in order to support all countries, especially developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States, and the most environmentally vulnerable countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, and indigenous and local communities, in the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
7.Emphasizing that increased knowledge on biodiversity and ecosystem services and its application is an important tool for communicating and mainstreaming biodiversity, invites Parties and other Governments to make use of the findings of the study on The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity and other relevant studies, to make the case for investment for biodiversity and ecosystem services and to strengthen policy commitment to biodiversity at the highest level;
8.Recalls decision IX/8, which called for gender mainstreaming in national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and decision IX/24, in which the Conference of the Parties approved the gender plan of action for the Convention, which, among other things, requests Parties to mainstream a gender perspective into the implementation of the Convention and promote gender equality in achieving its three objectives, and requests Parties to mainstream gender considerations, where appropriate, in the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its associated goals, the Aichi Targets, and indicators;
9.Recalling its "Four-year framework of programme priorities related to utilization of GEF resources for biodiversity for the period from 2010 to 2014" proposed in decision IX/31 and noting that objective 5 of the GEF-5 Biodiversity Focal Area Strategy is to "Integrate CBD obligations into national planning processes through enabling activities", requests the Global Environment Facility to provide support to eligible Parties in a expeditious manner, for revising their national biodiversity strategies and action plans in line with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
10.Urges Parties, in particular developed country Parties, and invites other Governments and international financial institutions, regional development banks, and other multilateral financial institutions to provide adequate, predictable and timely financial support to developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States and the most environmentally vulnerable countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, to enable the full implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and reiterates that the extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments under this Convention will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments under this Convention related to financial resources and transfer of technology;
11.Requests the Global Environment Facility, to provide adequate, timely and predictable financial support to eligible countries to enable the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
12.Recalling its strategy for resource mobilization in support of the achievement of the three objectives of the Convention (decision IX/11B, annex), invites Parties and relevant organizations, including members of the United Nations Development Group, the World Bank, regional development banks and other relevant international and regional bodies, together with non-governmental organizations and business sector entities to make available the necessary resources for the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, especially by developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition;
13.Decides that the fourth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook shall be prepared to provide a mid-term review of progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, including an analysis of how the implementation of the Convention and its Strategic Plan has contributed to the 2015 targets of the Millennium Development Goals;
14.Recalling that the role of the Conference of the Parties is to keep the implementation of the Convention under review, decides that future meetings of the Conference of the Parties shall review progress in the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, share experiences relevant for implementation and provide guidance on means to address obstacles encountered;
15.Decides to consider at its eleventh meeting the need for and possible development of additional mechanisms or enhancements to existing mechanisms such as the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice and the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention to enable Parties to meet their commitments under the Convention and the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020;
(a)Parties and other Governments at the forthcoming meetings of the decision-making bodies of the other biodiversity-related conventions,4 and other relevant agreements to consider appropriate contributions to the collaborative implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets;
(b)The United Nations Environment Programme, in particular its regional offices, as well as the United Nations Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, working at the country level, to facilitate activities to support the implementation of the Convention and the Strategic Plan, in cooperation with other relevant implementation agencies;
(c)The United Nations Environment Programme, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, as well as other relevant organizations to further develop, maintain and actively make use of the TEMATEA issue-based modules to enhance coherent implementation of biodiversity-related conventions and agreements;
(d)The Environment Management Group, in building on its report to the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties,5 to identify measures for effective and efficient implementation of the Strategic Plan across the United Nations system and provide a report on its work to the Conference of the Parties at its eleventh meeting through the Working Group on Review of Implementation and the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice;
(e)The United Nations General Assembly to consider for adoption relevant elements of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets as integral elements in the Millennium Development Goals, in particular Millennium Development Goal 7 on ensuring environmental sustainability;
17.Requests the Executive Secretary:
(a)To promote and facilitate, in partnership with relevant international organizations, including indigenous and local community organizations, activities to strengthen capacity for the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, including through regional and/or subregional workshops on updating and revising national biodiversity strategies and action plans, the mainstreaming of biodiversity, the enhancement of the clearing-house mechanism and the mobilization of resources;
(b)To prepare an analysis/synthesis of national, regional and other actions, including targets as appropriate, established in accordance with the Strategic Plan, to enable the Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention at its fourth meeting and the Conference of Parties at its eleventh and subsequent meetings to assess the contribution of such national and regional targets towards the global targets;
(c)To develop, for consideration by the Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention at its fourth meeting, options for the further enhancement of implementation of the Convention, including through the further development of capacity-building programmes, partnerships and the strengthening of synergies among Conventions and other international processes;
(d)To prepare a plan, to be considered by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice prior to the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties, for the preparation of the fourth edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook on the basis of the fifth national reports, use of headline global biodiversity indicators and other relevant information;
(e)Building on the results of The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity study6 and other processes, to cooperate with relevant organizations such as the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank, and the Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development, with the aim of: (i) further developing the economic aspects related to ecosystem services and biodiversity; (ii) developing implementation tools for the integration of economic aspects of biodiversity and ecosystem services; and (iii) facilitating implementation and capacity-building for such tools;
(f)Through capacity-building workshops, to support countries in making use of the findings of The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity study and in integrating the values of biodiversity into relevant national and local policies, programmes and planning processes;
(g)To further develop, in preparation for the consideration of this issue by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice at its fifteenth meeting, and the Working Group on Review of Implementation at it fourth meeting, the technical rationales and suggested milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets contained in the note by the Executive Secretary (UNEP/CBD/COP/10/9) taking into account comments made at the tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties.7
STRATEGIC PLAN FOR BIODIVERSITY 2011-2020 AND THE AICHI BIODIVERSITY TARGETS
"Living in harmony with nature"
1.The purpose of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 is to promote effective implementation of the Convention through a strategic approach, comprising a shared vision, a mission, andstrategic goals and targets ("the Aichi Biodiversity Targets"), that will inspire broad-based action by all Parties and stakeholders. The Strategic Plan will also provide a flexible framework for the establishment of national and regional targets and for enhancing coherence in the implementation of the provisions of the Convention and the decisions of the Conference of the Parties, including the programmes of work and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation as well as the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising from their Utilization. It will also serve as the basis for the development of communication tools capable of attracting the attention of and engaging stakeholders, thereby facilitating the mainstreaming of biodiversity into broader national and global agendas. A separate Strategic Plan has been adopted for the Biosafety Protocol that will complement the present one for the Convention.8
2.The text of the Convention, and in particular its three objectives, provide the fundamental basis for the Strategic Plan.
I.THE RATIONALE FOR THE PLAN
3.Biological diversity underpins ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services essential for human well-being. It provides for food security, human health, the provision of clean air and water; it contributes to local livelihoods, and economic development, and is essential for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, including poverty reduction.
4.The Convention on Biological Diversity has three objectives: the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. In the Conventions first Strategic Plan, adopted in 2002, the Parties committed themselves "to a more effective and coherent implementation of the three objectives of the Convention, to achieve by 2010 a significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on Earth." The third edition of the Global Biodiversity Outlook (GBO-3), drawing upon national reports, indicators and research studies, assesses progress towards the 2010 target, and provides scenarios for the future of biodiversity.
5.The 2010 biodiversity target has inspired action at many levels. However, such actions have not been on a scale sufficient to address the pressures on biodiversity. Moreover there has been insufficient integration of biodiversity issues into broader policies, strategies, programmes and actions, and therefore the underlying drivers of biodiversity loss have not been significantly reduced. While there is now some understanding of the linkages between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being, the value of biodiversity is still not reflected in broader policies and incentive structures.
6.Most Parties identify a lack of financial, human and technical resources as limiting their implementation of the Convention. Technology transfer under the Convention has been very limited. Insufficient scientific information for policy and decision making is a further obstacle for the implementation of the Convention. However, scientific uncertainty should not be used as an excuse for inaction.
7.The 2010 biodiversity target has not been achieved, at least not at the global level. The diversity of genes, species and ecosystems continues to decline, as the pressures on biodiversity remain constant or increase in intensity mainly, as a result of human actions.
8.Scientific consensus projects a continuing loss of habitats and high rates of extinctions throughout this century if current trends persist, with the risk of drastic consequences to human societies as several thresholds or "tipping points" are crossed. Unless urgent action is taken to reverse current trends, a wide range of services derived from ecosystems, underpinned by biodiversity, could rapidly be lost. While the harshest impacts will fall on the poor, thereby undermining efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, no-one will be immune from the impacts of the loss of biodiversity.
9.On the other hand, scenario analysis reveals a wide range of options for addressing the crisis. Determined action to value and protect biodiversity will benefit people in many ways, including through better health, greater food security and less poverty. It will also help to slow climate change by enabling ecosystems to store and absorb more carbon; and it will help people adapt to climate change by adding resilience to ecosystems and making them less vulnerable. Better protection of biodiversity is therefore a prudent and cost-effective investment in risk reduction for the global community.
10.Achieving this positive outcome requires actions at multiple entry points, which are reflected in the goals of this Strategic Plan. These include:
(a)Initiating action to address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss, including production and consumption patterns, by ensuring that biodiversity concerns are mainstreamed throughout government and society, through communication, education and awareness, appropriate incentive measures, and institutional change;
(b)Taking action now to decrease the direct pressures on biodiversity. Engagement of the agricultural, forest, fisheries, tourism, energy and other sectors will be essential to success. Where trade offs between biodiversity protection and other social objectives exist, they can often be minimized by using approaches such as spatial planning and efficiency measures. Where multiple pressures are threatening vital ecosystems and their services, urgent action is needed to decrease those pressures most amenable to short-term relief, such as over-exploitation or pollution, so as to prevent more intractable pressures, in particular climate change, from pushing the system "over the edge" to a degraded state;
(c)Continuing direct action to safeguard and, where necessary, restore biodiversity and ecosystem services. While longer-term actions to reduce the underlying causes of biodiversity are taking effect, immediate action can help conserve biodiversity, including in critical ecosystems, by means of protected areas, habitat restoration, species recovery programmes and other targeted conservation interventions;
(d)Efforts to ensure the continued provision of ecosystem services and to ensure access to these services, especially for the poor who most directly depend on them. Maintenance and restoration of ecosystems generally provide cost-effective ways to address climate change. Therefore, although climate change is an additional major threat to biodiversity, addressing this threat opens up a number of opportunities for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use;
(e)Enhanced support mechanisms for: capacity-building; the generation, use and sharing of knowledge; and access to the necessary financial and other resources. National planning processes need to become more effective in mainstreaming biodiversity and in highlighting its relevance for social and economic agendas. Convention bodies need to become more effective in reviewing implementation and providing support and guidance to Parties.
11.The vision of this Strategic Plan is a world of "Living in harmony with nature" where "By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people."
III.THE MISSION OF THE STRATEGIC PLAN
12.The mission of the Strategic Plan is to "take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity in order to ensure that by 2020 ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services, thereby securing the planets variety of life, and contributing to human well-being, and poverty eradication. To ensure this, pressures on biodiversity are reduced, ecosystems are restored, biological resources are sustainably used and benefits arising out of utilization of genetic resources are shared in a fair and equitable manner; adequate financial resources are provided, capacities are enhanced, biodiversity issues and values mainstreamed, appropriate policies are effectively implemented, and decision-making is based on sound science and the precautionary approach."
IV.STRATEGIC GOALS AND THE AICHI BIODIVERSITY TARGETS
13.The Strategic Plan includes 20 headline targets for 2015 or 2020 (the "Aichi Biodiversity Targets"), organized under five strategic goals. The goals and targets comprise both: (i) aspirations for achievement at the global level; and (ii) a flexible framework for the establishment of national or regional targets. Parties are invited to set their own targets within this flexible framework, taking into account national needs and priorities, while also bearing in mind national contributions to the achievement of the global targets. Not all countries necessarily need to develop a national target for each and every global target. For some countries, the global threshold set through certain targets may already have been achieved. Others targets may not be relevant in the country context.
Strategic goal A. Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society
Target 1:By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably.
Target 2:By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems.
Target 3:By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed in order to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions.
Target 4:By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits.
Strategic goal B. Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use
Target 5:By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced.
Target 6:By 2020 all fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.
Target 7:By 2020 areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
Target 8:By 2020, pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity.
Target 9:By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment.
Target 10:By 2015, the multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning.
Strategic goal C. Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity
Target 11:By 2020, at least 17 per cent of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services, are conserved through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures, and integrated into the wider landscapes and seascapes.
Target 12:By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.
Target 13:By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.
Strategic goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services
Target 14:By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable.
Target 15:By 2020, ecosystem resilience and the contribution of biodiversity to carbon stocks has been enhanced, through conservation and restoration, including restoration of at least 15 per cent of degraded ecosystems, thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation and to combating desertification.
Target 16:By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation.
Strategic goal E. Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity-building
Target 17:By 2015 each Party has developed, adopted as a policy instrument, and has commenced implementing an effective, participatory and updated national biodiversity strategy and action plan.
Target 18:By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, and their customary use of biological resources, are respected, subject to national legislation and relevant international obligations, and fully integrated and reflected in the implementation of the Convention with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities, at all relevant levels.
Target 19:By 2020, knowledge, the science base and technologies relating to biodiversity, its values, functioning, status and trends, and the consequences of its loss, are improved, widely shared and transferred, and applied.
Target 20:By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 from all sources, and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization, should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resource needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties.
V.IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING, REVIEW AND EVALUATION
14.Means for implementation: The Strategic Plan will be implemented primarily through activities at the national or subnational level, with supporting action at the regional and global levels. The means of implementation for this Strategic Plan will include provision of financial resources in accordance with respective obligations under the Convention, taking into account Article 20 of the Convention. The Strategic Plan provides a flexible framework for the establishment of national and regional targets9. National biodiversity strategies and action plans are key instruments for translating the Strategic Plan to national circumstances, including through the national targets, and for integrating biodiversity across all sectors of government and society. The participation of all relevant stakeholders should be promoted and facilitated at all levels of implementation. Initiatives and activities of indigenous and local communities, contributing to the implementation of the Strategic Plan at the local level, should be supported and encouraged. The means for implementation may vary from country to country, according to national needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, countries should learn from each other when determining appropriate means for implementation. It is in this spirit that examples of the possible means for implementation are provided in the note by the Executive Secretary on the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020: provisional technical rationale, possible indicators and suggested milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets . It is envisaged that implementation will be further supported by the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising from their Utilization and other components of the international regime on access and benefit-sharing which will facilitate the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.10
15.The programmes of work: The thematic programmes of work of the Convention include: biodiversity of inland waters, marine and coastal biodiversity, agricultural biodiversity, forest biodiversity, biodiversity of dry and sub-humid lands, mountain biodiversity and island biodiversity. Together with the various cross-cutting issues11 they provide detailed guidance on implementation of the Strategic Plan, and could also contribute to development and poverty reduction. They are key tools to be considered in the updating of national biodiversity strategies and action plans.
16.Broadening political support for this Strategic Plan and the objectives of the Convention is necessary, for example, by working to ensure that Heads of State and Government and the parliamentarians of all Parties understand the value of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Parties to the Convention should be encouraged to establish national biodiversity targets that support the achievement of the Strategic Plan and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and outline the measures and activities that will achieve this, such as the development of comprehensive national accounting, as appropriate, that integrates the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into government decision-making with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and other stakeholders.
17.Partnerships at all levels are required for effective implementation of the Strategic Plan, to leverage actions at the scale necessary, to garner the ownership necessary to ensure mainstreaming of biodiversity across sectors of government, society and the economy and to find synergies with national implementation of multilateral environmental agreements. Partnerships with the programmes, funds and specialized agencies of the United Nations system, as well as with other conventions and multilateral and bilateral agencies, foundations, women, indigenous and local communities, and non-governmental organizations, will be essential to support implementation of the Strategic Plan at the national level. At the international level, this requires partnerships between the Convention and other conventions, international organizations and processes, civil society and the private sector. In particular, efforts will be needed to:
(a)Ensure that the Convention, through its new Strategic Plan, contributes to sustainable development and the elimination of poverty, and the other Millennium Development Goals;
(b)Ensure cooperation to achieve implementation of the Plan in different sectors;
(c)Promote biodiversity-friendly practice by business; and
(d)Promote synergy and coherence in the implementation of the multilateral environmental agreements.12
18.Reporting by Parties: Parties will inform the Conference of the Parties of the national targets or commitments and policy instruments they adopt to implement the Strategic Plan, as well as any milestones towards these targets, and report on progress towards these targets and milestones, including through their fifth and sixth national reports. Suggested milestones, as well as suggested indicators, are to be developed in accordance with the processes laid out in paragraphs 3 (b), (e) and 17 (g) of decision X/2 on the Strategic Plan as well as decision X/7 on goals, targets and associated indicators. Parliamentarians, by responding to the needs and expectations of citizens on a regular basis, should play a role in reviewing the implementation of the Convention at the national and subnational levels, as appropriate, to help Governments produce a more comprehensive review.
19.Review by the Conference of the Parties: The Conference of the Parties, with the support of other Convention bodies, in particular the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention, will keep under review implementation of this Strategic Plan, and support effective implementation by Parties ensuring that new guidance is informed by the experience of Parties in implementing the Convention, in line with the principle of adaptive management through active learning. The Conference of the Parties will review the progress towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets13 as set out in the Strategic Plan and make recommendations to overcome any obstacles encountered in meeting those targets, including revision of the provisional technical rationale, possible indicators and suggested milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and measures contained therein, and, as appropriate, to strengthen the mechanisms to support implementation, monitoring and review. To facilitate this work, the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) should develop a common set of biodiversity metrics to be used to assess the status of biodiversity and its values.
20.Capacity-building for effective national action: Many Parties, especially the developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States and the most environmentally vulnerable countries, as well as countries with economies in transition, may require support for the development of national targets and their integration into national biodiversity strategies and action plans, revised and updated in line with this Strategic Plan and guidance from the Conference of the Parties (decision IX/8). Global and regional capacity-building programmes could provide technical support and facilitate peer-to-peer exchange, complementing national activities supported by the financial mechanism in line with the four-year framework of programme priorities related to utilization of GEF resources for biodiversity for the period from 2010 to 2014 (decision IX/31). Capacity-building on gender mainstreaming in accordance with the Conventions gender plan of action, and for indigenous and local communities concerning the implementation of the Strategic Plan at national and subnational levels should be supported.
21.The Strategic Plan will be implemented through the programmes of work of the Convention on Biological Diversity, implementation of national biodiversity strategies and action plans, and other national, regional and international activities.
22.Clearing-house mechanism and technology transfer: Collectively those involved in implementing the Convention have a wealth of experience and have developed many useful good practice cases, tools and guidance. There is additional useful information beyond this community. A biodiversity knowledge network will be developed, including a database and network of practitioners, to bring together this knowledge and experience and to make it available through the clearing-house mechanism to facilitate and support enhanced implementation of the Convention.14 National clearing-house mechanism nodes comprising networks of experts with effective websites should be developed and sustained so that in each Party, all have access to the information, expertise and experience required to implement the Convention. National clearing-house mechanism nodes should also be linked to the central clearing-house mechanism managed by the Convention Secretariat, and information exchange between these should be facilitated.
23.Financial resources: The strategy for resource mobilization including the proposed concrete initiatives, targets and indicators to be developed, and processes for developing innovative mechanisms, provides a roadmap for achieving the effective implementation of Article 20, paragraphs 2 and 4, of the Convention, in order to provide adequate, predictable and timely new and additional financial resources, in support of the implementation of this Strategic Plan.15
24.Partnerships and initiatives to enhance cooperation: Cooperation will be enhanced with the programmes, funds and specialized agencies of the United Nations system as well as conventions and other multilateral and bilateral agencies, foundations and non-governmental organizations16 and indigenous and local communities, to support implementation of the Strategic Plan at the national level. Cooperation will also be enhanced with relevant regional bodies to promote regional biodiversity strategies and the integration of biodiversity into broader initiatives. Initiatives of the Convention such as South-South cooperation,17 promoting engagement of subnational governments, cities and local authorities,18 and business and biodiversity19 and promoting the engagement of parliamentarians, including through inter-parliamentary dialogues will contribute to the implementation of the Strategic Plan.
25.Support mechanisms for research, monitoring and assessment: The following are key elements to ensure effective implementation of the Strategic Plan:
(a)Global monitoring of biodiversity: work is needed to monitor the status and trends of biodiversity, maintain and share data, and develop and use indicators and agreed measures of biodiversity and ecosystem change;20
(b)Regular assessment of the state of biodiversity and ecosystem services, future scenarios and effectiveness of responses: this could be provided through an enhanced role for the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice as well as the proposed intergovernmental platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services;
(c)Ongoing research on biodiversity and ecosystem function and services and their relationship to human well-being;21
(d)The contributions of knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity to all the above;
(e)Capacity-building and timely, adequate, predictable and sustainable financial and technical resources.
2 This note has been updated, consistent with the targets as adopted and taking into account the points listed in the footnote to paragraph 17 (g) of the present decision and is available as document UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27/Add.1.
4 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, the World Heritage Convention, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources.
7 These include the following:
- The need for baselines should be reflected in the technical rationales of several targets.
- The definition of "other means" in the technical rationale of target 11 should be replaced with a definition of "other effective area-based conservation measures".
- The paramount importance of water should be highlighted in the technical rationale of target 14
- A reference to Article 16 of the Convention will be added to the technical rationale of target 19.
9 The note, updated consistent with the targets as adopted and decision X/2, is available as UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27/Add.1..
10 Note that the international regime on access and benefit-sharing is constituted of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising from their Utilization, as well as complementary instruments, including the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and the Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benefits Arising Out of Their Utilization (decision X/1, preamble).
12 The TEMETEA modules for the coherent implementation of multilateral environmental agreements and related instruments may be a useful tool to support this.
13 A note on provisional technical rationale, possible indicators and suggested milestones for the Aichi Biodiversity Targets is provided as UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27/Add.1.
16 Including, among others, UNEP, UNDP, the World Bank, FAO and IUCN.
17 See also decisions X/25 and X/23, on a multi-year plan of action for South-South cooperation on biodiversity for development for the period 2011-2020.
18 Decision X/22 on the Plan of Action on Subnational Governments, Cities and other Local Authorities on biodiversity. See also the Aichi/Nagoya Declaration on Local Authorities and Biodiversity.
20 The GEO-Biodiversity Observation Network, with further development and adequate resourcing, could facilitate this, together with Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership.
21 This is facilitated by, inter alia, DIVERSITAS, the Programme on Ecosystem Change and Society and other global change research programmes of the International Council for Science (ICSU).