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Advancing More, Better and Faster Financing for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

Financial Resources and Mechanism

New official/information documents

February 2016
Report of the Dialogue Workshop on Assessment of Collective Action of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Biodiversity Conservation and Resource Mobilization, also in Spanish

November 2015

Impact Evaluation of GEF/UNDP Support to Protected Areas and Protected Area Systems, with the following findings:
  • GEF support is contributing to biodiversity conservation by helping to lower habitat loss in PAs as indicated by less forest cover loss in GEF-supported PAs compared to PAs not supported by GEF. GEF-supported PAs also generally show positive trends in species populations, and reduced pressures to biodiversity at the site level.
  • GEF support has helped to build capacities that address key factors affecting biodiversity conservation in PAs, mainly in the areas of PA management, support from local populations, and sustainable financing. Sustainable financing of PAs remains a concern.
  • GEF support is contributing to large-scale change in biodiversity governance in countries by investing in PA systems, including legal frameworks that increase community engagement. Through interventions at the PA level, GEF support is also helping catalyze gradual changes in governance and management approaches that help to reduce biodiversity degradation.
  • While sharing important characteristics with governments and other donors, GEF support allows adaptability and higher likelihood of broader adoption in cases where it pays particular attention to three key elements in combination: long-term investment, financial sustainability, and creation of links across multiple approaches, stakeholders and scales.

What is New

World Bank Group (2015): Global Economic Prospects, January 2015: Having Fiscal Space and Using It. Washington, DC: World Bank

OECD (2015): Public Goods and Externalities: Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, The United States

UNEP: Delivering the green economy through financial policy, including case studies on China Green Credit Policy, IFC Sustainable Banking Network, South Africa: Regulation 28, Stock Exchange Initiatives, Disclosure Initiatives, US: Insurance Regulation, United Kingdom: The Green Investment Bank, The Netherlands: Green Funds Scheme, South Korea: Green Growth Strategy.

Namibia: Development of a Baseline of Biodiversity Expenditure in Namibia, 2014: Final Report and Annexes. Namibia Nature Foundation.

Costa Rica: Fundación Banco Ambiental (FUNBAM) and Fondo para la Biodiversidad Sostenible, Programa de Conservación de la Biodiversidad - PCB, fourth draft

Norway: Capacity building course Southern Africa region: Synthetic biology – biosafety and contribution to addressing societal challenges, 20-26 September 2015, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

UNESCAP: Sustainable Development Financing: Perspectives from Asia and the Pacific

Australia: Financing Sustainable Development – What Can We Learn from the Australian Experience of Reform? Draft discussion paper submitted to Asia-Pacific High-Level Consultation on Financing for Development meeting, Jakarta, Indonesia, 29-30 April.

Development Policy Forum (DPF): Financing for Development: The challenge of implementing SDGs, Development Policy Forum (DPF) Roundtable, Spring 2015, Brussels

International Trade Centre (ITC) (2015). The Trade in Wildlife: A Framework to Improve Biodiversity and Livelihood Outcomes

UNDP (2013): Targeted Scenario Analysis: A new approach to capturing and presenting ecosystem service values for decision making.
(2014): Tourism Concessions in Protected Natural Areas: Guidelines for Managers; Appendix

Apple inc. (11 May 2015): announced an expansion of its renewable energy and environmental protection initiatives, including a new multi-year project with World Wildlife Fund to protect as much as 1 million acres of responsibly managed working forests which provide fiber for pulp, paper and wood products in China.

China: Green Finance Task Force Report; Green Finance Task Force Summary; Theoretical Framework of Green Finance; International Experience of Green Finance

UK: Natural Capital Investments in England (Final Report 2015)

UK: The State of Natural Capital: Protecting and Improving Natural Capital for Prosperity and Wellbeing, Third report to the Economic Affairs Committee, Natural Capital Committee

UK: Developing Corporate Natural Capital Accounts, eftec, Final Report for the Natural Capital Committee, January 2015

GCF: The Green Climate Fund Board (26 March 2015) accredited: Centre de suivi écologique (CSE) from Senegal, Fondo de Promoción de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas del Péru (PROFONANPE), the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP), Acumen Fund, Inc. (Acumen), Asian Development Bank (ADB), Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW), and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

France: French Agency for Development - AFD provided 315 M€ (4% of total funding) for biodiversity and natural resources projects around the world in 2014.

United Nations: Zero Draft of the Outcome Document of the Third Financing for Development Conference, 13-16 July 2015, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

GEF: Mid-Term Evaluation of the System for Transparent Allocation of Resources (STAR)

GEF: Mid-Term Evaluation of the National Portfolio Formulation Exercise (NPFE)

Sri Lanka: Joint GEF/Sri Lanka Country Portfolio Evaluation (1991-2012)

India: GEF Country Portfolio Evaluation India (1991-2012)

Burundi: Biodiversity investment and financial resource mobilization strategic plan 2013-2020

Executive Summary: High Level Panel on Global Assessment of Resources for Implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 (UNEP/CBD/COP/12/13/ADD2)

High Level Panel on Global Assessment of Resources (full report) for Implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 (UNEP/CBD/COP/12/INF/4)

Second Dialogue Seminar on Scaling up Finance for Biodiversity: Resource mobilization and the value of biodiversity, mainstreaming, financing mechanisms and safeguards, Co-Chairs’ Summary Report (Sabino Francis Ogwal and Maria Schultz), also available in Spanish

World's protected natural areas receive eight billion visits a year, of which more than 80% are in Europe and North America. These visits generate approximately US $600 billion/y in direct in-country expenditure and US $250 billion/y in consumer surplus. See: Balmford A, Green JMH, Anderson M, Beresford J, Huang C, et al. (2015) Walk on the Wild Side: Estimating the Global Magnitude of Visits to Protected Areas. PLoS Biol 13(2): e1002074. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002074

Joint CBD-GEF Subregional Workshops on CBD Implementation and Financial Reporting

Financing events during COP12, including over 70 presentations on national financing experiences and international efforts.

Aligning the financial system with sustainable development: pathways to scale. Profiling financial innovations of 12 countries in four clusters related to particular financial asset pools — banks, bond markets, institutional investors and central bank balance sheets — and one cross - cutting policy tool: long-term environmental risk assessment.

Guidance Manual on Valuation and Accounting of Ecosystem Services for Small Island Developing States (SIDS). UNEP’s Ecosystem Services Economics Guidance Manual Series No. 2 under the Valuation and Accounting of Natural Capital for Green Economy (VANTAGE) programme and Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 193.

Climate Finance for Cities and Buildings - A Handbook for Local Governments. UNEP Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE), Paris.

Keeping Track of Adaptation Actions in Africa. Targeted Fiscal Stimulus Actions Making a Difference. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi

The Environmental Crime Crisis – Threats to Sustainable Development from Illegal Exploitation and Trade in Wildlife and Forest Resources. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal, Nairobi and Arendal.

Barbados’ Green Economy Scoping Study. Government of Barbados, University of West Indies - Cave Hill Campus, United Nations Environment Programme, 244p.

Greening Business. Our Planet, the magazine of the United Nations Environment Programme, 2014.

Building Natural Capital: How REDD+ can Support a Green Economy, Report of the International Resource Panel, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, 2014. Summary for Policy Makers

The 2014 CAPE conference: The role of finance in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals Conference report Report, December 2014

Elements: Preparatory Process for the 3rd International Conference on Financing for Development, 21 January 2015

Mr. Braulio Dias, Executive Secretary, letter transmitting COP12 decisions to the financial mechanism, including updates under the Convention on Biological Diversity, 22 January 2015

Doha negotiations related to biodiversity, WTO agreements and biodiversity measures, trade in sustainable development (January 2015)

USD 10.2 billion was the initial resource mobilization result of the Green Climate Fund: highlights of UNFCCC CP.20 and KP.10 decisions (8 January 2015)

Mr. Braulio Dias, Executive Secretary, Statement to the 47th meeting of the Council of the Global Environment Facility, 29 October 2014

Joint Summary of the Chairs of the 47th meeting of the Council of the Global Environment Facility

Issues for SBI-1 and COP-12

Financial Resources (Article 20)
Targets for resource mobilization: Further decides to review, at the thirteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, progress towards the above targets, and their adequacy, and to consider the need for appropriate action, based on information provided by Parties through the Financial Reporting Framework, including their respective identified resource needs, and taking into account their absorption capacities (decision XII/3, paragraph 3)
Strategy for resource mobilization: Requests the Executive Secretary to compile a synthesis of the information provided by Parties (Urges Parties to consider undertaking, as appropriate, a review and assessment of existing legislation and policies governing biodiversity financing mechanisms, with a view to identifying opportunities for mainstreaming biodiversity and strengthening current policies and their complementary safeguards, and to make information on this work available to the Executive Secretary, including practical experiences and lessons learned), for consideration by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation, at its first meeting (decision XII/3, paragraph 18)
Financial reporting, transparency and accessibility of information: (1) Requests the Executive Secretary to develop, for consideration by the Subsidiary Body on Implementation at its first meeting, options for strengthening systems of information on biodiversity-related international financial resource flows to developing countries, as well as on domestic resource flows, making use of the Financial Reporting Framework, with a view to further increasing transparency and accessibility of information to support the implementation of Article 20 of the Convention (decision XII/3, paragraph 27); (2) Requests the Executive Secretary, subject to the availability of resources, to facilitate the exchange of views and experiences on collective action of indigenous and local communities, and make this information available through the clearing house mechanism of the Convention and to the Subsidiary Body on Implementation at its first meeting for its consideration for update and provision of relevant guidelines (decision XII/3, paragraph 31)

Financial mechanism (Article 21)
Programme priorities: Requests the Executive Secretary to explore and report on ways in which the Conference of the Parties can best utilize the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Convention’s Protocols to set priorities for the financial mechanism within the context of the four-year framework of programming priorities for GEF-7 and to submit the report to the Subsidiary Body on Implementation for its consideration at its first meeting (decision XII/30, paragraph 10)
Determination of funding requirements: Decides, in anticipation of the seventh replenishment of the Global Environment Facility Trust Fund, to undertake, at its thirteenth meeting, the second determination of funding requirements for the implementation of the Convention and its Protocols, in line with the terms of reference contained in the annex to the present decision (decision XII/30, paragraph 11)

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme