International Institutions

Science & Nature
Realizing Agenda 2030: Will donor dollars and country priorities align with global goals? Williamsburg, VA: AidData at the College of William & Mary. The report provides a historical perspective on how ODA financing was aligned with the MDGs, and the perceived influence of global goals in shaping domestic priorities, and offers a baseline of ODA financing to the SDGs and a forward-looking perspective in translating past lessons learned from the MDGs era into actionable insights

Tropical forests are a net carbon source based on above-ground measurements of gain and loss, A. Baccini, et al, Science 13 Oct 2017: Vol. 358, Issue 6360, pp. 230-234. Using 12 years (2003 to 2014) of MODIS pantropical satellite data, the study quantified net annual changes in the aboveground carbon density of tropical woody live vegetation, providing direct, measurement-based evidence that the world’s tropical forests are a net carbon source of 425.2 ± 92.0 teragrams of carbon per year (Tg C year–1). This net release of carbon consists of losses of 861.7 ± 80.2 Tg C year–1 and gains of 436.5 ± 31.0 Tg C year–1. Gains result from forest growth; losses result from deforestation and from reductions in carbon density within standing forests (degradation or disturbance), with the latter accounting for 68.9% of overall losses.

Marine Biotechnology: Definitions, Infrastructures and Directions for Innovation, OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Papers, September 2017 No. 43. Several countries have been setting up strategic roadmaps to support marine biotechnologies that could drive innovation and help address the global sustainability goals of food, energy, and health. The report identifies and begins to address challenges facing cooperation on marine biotechnology across countries. First, the report provides on an international definition of marine biotechnology that was developed through a multi-year process. Second, the report reviews the international infrastructure in marine biotechnology and identifies the lack of standardisation as a critical issue.

Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines, Gerardo Ceballosa,1, Paul R. Ehrlichb,1, and Rodolfo Dirzob, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, The research analysed data on 27,500 species of land vertebrates from the IUCN and found the ranges of a third have shrunk in recent decades. Up to 50% of all individual animals have been lost in recent decades.
Drought Stress Testing – Making Financial Institutions more Resilient to Environmental Risks. March 2017. Key findings: Extreme droughts could increase loan default losses 10-fold for specific portfolios that are most exposed to the effects of drought; Even when exposed to less extreme drought scenarios, most companies in the analysed portfolios see their credit ratings downgraded; The most affected sectors are water supply, agriculture and, in countries with high reliance upon hydroelectric energy, power generation; Significant impacts are also found in water-dependent sectors such as food and beverage production; Sectors that are less water-dependent but highly sensitive to general economic strength, such as petroleum refining, are also affected by widespread economic impacts of drought.
Upper ocean O2 trends: 1958–2015, by Takamitsu Ito et al, Geophysical Research Letters, April 2017. Historic observations of dissolved oxygen (O2) in the ocean are analyzed to quantify multidecadal trends and variability from 1958 to 2015. The amount of dissolved oxygen contained in the water – an important measure of ocean health – has been declining for more than 20 years, as ocean temperatures began to climb. The trend of oxygen falling is about two to three times faster than what predicted from the decrease of solubility associated with the ocean warming. Falling oxygen levels in water have the potential to impact the habitat of marine organisms worldwide and in recent years led to more frequent “hypoxic events” that killed or displaced populations of fish, crabs and many other organisms.
Recent increases in human pressure and forest loss threaten many Natural World Heritage Sites, by James R. Allan. Biological Conservation, Volume 206, February 2017, Pages 47–55. Natural World Heritage Sites (NWHS), via their formal designation through the United Nations, are globally recognized as containing some of the Earth's most valuable natural assets. Understanding changes in their ecological condition is essential for their ongoing preservation. Using two newly available globally consistent data sets that assess changes in human pressure (Human Footprint) and forest loss (Global Forest Watch) over time across the global network of terrestrial NWHS, the study shows that human pressure has increased in 63% of NWHS since 1993 and across all continents except Europe. The largest increases in pressure occurred in Asian NWHS, many of which were substantially damaged such as Manas Wildlife Sanctuary. Forest loss occurred in 91% of NWHS that contain forests, with a global mean loss of 1.5% per site since 2000, with the largest areas of forest lost occurring in the Americas. For example Wood Buffalo National Park and Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve lost 2581 km2 (11.7%) and 365 km2 (8.5%) of their forest respectively. On average human pressure increased faster and more forest loss occurred in areas surrounding NWHS, suggesting they are becoming increasingly isolated and are under threat from processes occurring outside their borders.
The United States and the Paris Agreement: A Pivotal Moment, by Ban Ki-moon and Robert N. Stavins, viewpoints, April 2017, Harvard Project on Climate Agreements. Estimates of economic damages of unrestrained climate change vary, with most falling in the range of 1% to 3% of world GDP per year by the middle of the current century.
Global Fund lessons for Sustainable Development Goals, Jeffrey D. Sachs and Guido Schmidt-Traub (April 6, 2017), Science 356 (6333), 32-33. Between 2003 and 2015, the GF had disbursed $35 billion, accounting for 16.4% of international funding for HIV/AIDS, 44.5% for TB, and 81.4% for malaria bed nets.
An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm, by Eric Dinerstein et al, BioScience XX: 1–12, 2017. Among 846 ecoregions over the planet’s 14 biomes, 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected (if they had more than 50 percent protection); 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target (“Nature Could Reach Half” if they didn’t have 50 percent protection but could achieve that mark through additional conservation efforts); 228 ecoregions (27%) as Nature Could Recover (“Nature Could Recover" if they had between 20 and 50 percent protection and would need restoration to reach 50 percent); and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains (“Nature Imperiled” – these areas had protected areas and natural habitat that together covered less than 20 percent of their land areas). It proposes a Global Deal for Nature—a companion to the Paris Climate Deal—to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands. The goal of such an accord would be to protect half the terrestrial realm by 2050 to halt the extinction crisis while sustaining human livelihoods. The researchers estimate that at current rates, the amount of land under official protection increases 4 percent per decade. To achieve 50 percent protection by 2050, this rate needs to be doubled to 8 percent. Increasing protections and restoring degraded land would cost somewhere between $8 billion and $80 billion per year, and could employ people in underemployed rural communities.
Fear of large carnivores causes a trophic cascade. Justin P. Suraci et al. Nature Communications 7, Article number: 10698 (2016), doi:10.1038/ncomms10698. The fear large carnivores inspire, independent of their direct killing of prey, may itself cause cascading effects down food webs potentially critical for conserving ecosystem function, particularly by affecting large herbivores and mesocarnivores.
Environmental Sustainability: A Case of Policy Implementation Failure? Michael Howes et al. Sustainability 2017, 9(2). Since 1970, humanity's ecological footprint has exceeded the Earth's capacity and has risen to the point where 1.6 planets would be needed to provide resources sustainably. The biodiversity index has fallen by more than 50% as the populations of other species continue to decline. Greenhouse gas emissions that drive climate change have almost doubled while the impacts of climate change are becoming increasingly apparent. The world has lost more than 48% of tropical and sub-tropical forests. The rate at which environmental indicators deteriorated was largely unchanged over the two decades since the Rio summit. Furthermore, humanity is fast approaching several environmental tipping points. If crossed, these could lead to irreversible changes. Three types of failure kept recurring: economic, political and communication.
Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being. Science: 355 (6332), 31 March 2017. Rising temperatures on land and sea are increasingly forcing species to migrate to cooler climes, pushing disease-carrying insects into new areas, moving the pests that attack crops and shifting the pollinators that fertilise many of them. Land-based species are moving polewards by an average of 17km per decade, and marine species by 72km per decade. This mass movement of species is the biggest for about 25,000 years, the peak of the last ice age. Mosquitoes that transmit malaria shifting to new areas as they warm and where people may have little immunity. The northward spread in Europe and North America of the animal ticks that spread Lyme disease: the UK has seen a tenfold rise in cases since 2001 as winters become milder. A third of the land used for forestry in Europe is set to become unuseable for valuable timber trees in the coming decades. Important fish stocks are migrating towards the poles in search of cooler waters, with the mackerel caught in Iceland jumping from 1,700 tonnes in 2006 to 120,000 tonnes in 2010. Mangroves are migrating polewards in Australia and in the southern US, meaning the storm protection and fish nurseries provided are being lost in some places. In Australia’s seas, kelp forests are being destroyed by an influx of tropical fish that eat them, threatening the important rock lobster trade. The poleward spread of bark beetles in northern hemisphere forests leads to more severe pest outbreaks and tree deaths. This in turn provides more fuel for forest fires, releasing more planet-warming carbon dioxide.
Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade. Nature, 10 March 2017. Nearly 3.5 million people die prematurely each year due to air pollution, and about 22% of these deaths are associated with goods and services that were produced in one region for consumption in another. About 12% (411,100) of early deaths globally were related to air pollutants emitted in a different region of the world. 108,600 premature deaths in China are linked to consumption in western Europe and the US.
Rapid emergence of climate change in environmental drivers of marine ecosystems, by Stephanie A. Henson, et al. Nature Communications 8, 14682 (2017), doi:10.1038/ncomms14682, 7 March 2017. More than half the world’s oceans could suffer multiple symptoms of climate change over the next 15 years, including rising temperatures, acidification, lower oxygen levels and decreasing food supplies, new research suggests. Nearly all of the open sea is acidifying because of greenhouse gas emissions.
Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation, by Jennifer Howard et al, February 2017, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. Coastal wetlands may capture and store more than 200 metric tons of carbon per year globally, and these ecosystems store 50-90 percent of this carbon in soils, where it can stay for thousands of years if left undisturbed. Other ecosystems, such as coral reefs and kelp forests, provide valuable storm and erosion protection, key fish habitat and recreation opportunities, and thus deserve protection. But their capacity to store carbon over the long term is limited.
Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in the deepest ocean fauna, by Alan J. Jamieson, et al, Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1, 0051 (2017) DOI: 10.1038/s41559-016-0051. Chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which were commonly used as electrical insulators and flame retardants since 1930s, and banned by the US in 1979 and by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001, are found in the amphipods in the deepest reaches of the Pacific Ocean.
Using spatial statistics to identify emerging hot spots of forest loss, by Nancy L Harris, et al, Environmental Research Letter, 12 (2017) 024012. Between 2000 and 2014, Brazil lost an average of 2.7 million hectares of forest per year, but the rate of loss has declined significantly since 2004. Loss has shifted towards the unprotected Cerrado biome, made up of savanna forest and grasslands with the highest plant biodiversity and thousands of endemic species, which is currently threatened by many of the deforestation drivers that once dominated the Amazon, including soy production, cattle ranching and charcoal production. From 2000 to 2014, DRC lost an average of 0.57 million hectares of forest per year, and the rate of forest loss between 2011 and 2014 increased by a factor of 2.5. Indonesia lost about 1.3 million hectares of forest annually between 2000 and 2014, with nearly 40 percent of loss occurring in primary forests, despite the forest moratorium established in 2011.
Can conservation funding be left to carbon finance? Evidence from participatory future land use scenarios in Peru, Indonesia, Tanzania, and Mexico, by Ashwin Ravikumar et al, Environmental Research Letter 12 (2017) 014015, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa5509. There are cases when carbon finance could have an enormous conservation impact, but carbon finance is not a one-size-fits-all solution to saving forests and slowing climate change. Indonesia's peat forests have potential to generate billions of dollars through its carbon storage capacity, while dry less carbon-dense forests such as a Canadian pine forest won't generate that kind of finance.
The last frontiers of wilderness: Tracking loss of intact forest landscapes from 2000 to 2013, by Peter Potapov et al, Science Advances, 2017;3: e1600821 13 January 2017. In 2000, intact forest landscapes covered a total global area of 12.8 million square kilometers, or nearly 5 million square miles. Truly intact forest landscapes declined by 7.2 percent. More than half these losses occurred in three countries alone: Russia, Brazil and Canada. The rate of reductions to intact forest landscapes between 2011 and 2013 was triple the rate between 2001 and 2003. About 14 percent of the losses were caused by direct alteration of the landscape by activities such as logging and land-clearing. The rest of the losses were caused by fragmentation brought on by road-building and other forms of construction. Timber harvesting, agricultural expansion and human-caused wildfires were the top three specific causes of all losses worldwide. Worldwide, losses for reasons other than wildfires were 3.4 times higher outside protected areas than inside. At least 19 nations around the world will lose all of their intact forest landscapes in the next 60 years. Four of these — Paraguay, Laos, Cambodia and Equatorial Guinea — may lose them all in the next two decades.
Insurgency, Terrorism and Organised Crime in a Warming Climate: Analysing the Links Between Climate Change and Non-State Armed Groups, by Adelphi. Climate change, livelihood insecurity and Boko Haram around Lake Chad; Cliate change, drought and the 'Islamic State' in syria; Climate change, violent conflict and illicit livelihoods in Afghanistan; Climate change, urban violence and organized crime in Guatemala.
Global Patterns in the Implementation of Payments for Environmental Services, Driss Ezzine-de-Blas1 et al, PLOS ONE, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0149847 March 3, 2016. In Latin America, about one tenth of cases are private non-commercial initiatives (9%), one fourth is private commercial, while two thirds (65%) are publicly funded cases. Europe, North America and Asia present a slightly higher frequency of publicly funded PES (70%). In Africa, privately funded schemes clearly predominate (85%). Half of these private schemes are run by the private commercial sector, especially for eco-tourism and wildlife. Watershed PES schemes are the smallest in size, but record the highest annual per-hectare payments. Carbon, biodiversity and multi-functional agriculture PES schemes score similar in size, although carbon PES show large variability. Multifunctional agricultural PES schemes vary the least in payment amounts, and account for large areas. The lowest payments are for biodiversity PES, but with large variance. Database and Description of each PES
CNN: How to stop the sixth mass extinction, By John D. Sutter, 12 December 2016: stop burning fossil fuels, protect half the Earth's land and oceans, fight illegal wildlife trafficking, slow human population growth, reconnect with the natural world, and open our eyes
Edward O. Wilson: The Global Solution to Extinction, New York Times, 12 March 2016. The only way to save upward of 90 percent of the rest of life is to vastly increase the area of refuges, from their current 15 percent of the land and 3 percent of the sea to half of the land and half of the sea.
Alliances for Green Infrastructure: State of Watershed Investment 2016. Globally, over 80 percent of generated wastewater flows back into ecosystems untreated. Indeed, 1.8 billion people use a contaminated water source, which contributes to 842,000 deaths annually. Nature-based interventions have massive potential to help reduce water pollution, and governments, water utilities, companies and communities funneled $25 billion into nature based solutions to solve water-related problems.Cities such as Washington D.C. and Philadelphia are embracing the green approach with programs intending to incentivize developers and property owners to implement green interventions. In 2014, D.C. launched the nation’s first Stormwater Retention Credit (SRCs) trading program, which allows property owners to generate SRCs for voluntarily implementing green infrastructure that reduces stormwater runoff. They can then trade their SRCs with others needing to meet regulatory requirements.
The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences
Mainstreaming Biodiversity: Conservation for the Twenty-First Century, by Kent H. Redford et al, Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8 December 2015, Volume 3. Between 2004 and 2014 alone the GEF has supported 327 biodiversity mainstreaming projects with US$1.6 billion in GEF funding and US$5.2 billion in co-financing.
World's protected natural areas receive eight billion visits a year, of which more than 80% are in Europe and North America. These visits generate approximately US $600 billion/y in direct in-country expenditure and US $250 billion/y in consumer surplus. See: Balmford A, Green JMH, Anderson M, Beresford J, Huang C, et al. (2015) Walk on the Wild Side: Estimating the Global Magnitude of Visits to Protected Areas. PLoS Biol 13(2): e1002074. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002074
Global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity, by Eric F. Lambina and Patrick Meyfroidt
World's protected natural areas receive eight billion visits a year, of which more than 80% are in Europe and North America. These visits generate approximately US $600 billion/y in direct in-country expenditure and US $250 billion/y in consumer surplus. See: Balmford A, Green JMH, Anderson M, Beresford J, Huang C, et al. (2015) Walk on the Wild Side: Estimating the Global Magnitude of Visits to Protected Areas. PLoS Biol 13(2): e1002074. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002074

The roads ahead: Narratives for shared socioeconomic pathways describing world futures in the 21st century, Global Environmental Change 42 (2017) 169–180.

Environmental Income and Rural Livelihoods: A Global-Comparative Analysis, by Arild Angelsen et al. World Development Vol. 64, pp. S12–S28, 2014. This paper presents results from a comparative analysis of environmental income from approximately 8000 households in 24 developing countries collected by research partners in CIFOR’s Poverty Environment Network (PEN). Environmental income accounts for 28% of total household income, 77% of which comes from natural forests. Environmental income shares are higher for low-income households, but in absolute terms environmental income is approximately five times higher in the highest income quintile, compared to the two lowest quintiles. Environmental income reduces income inequality within research sites. Environmental income is particularly important for male-headed and younger households. Agricultural and forest activities are complementary household economies, but alternative development pathways at the landscape-level.
The Causal Effect of Environmental Catastrophe on Long-Run Economic Growth: Evidence From 6,700 Cyclones, by Solomon M. Hsiang, Amir S. Jina. NBER Working Paper No. 20352, Issued in July 2014. It reconstructs every country's exposure to the universe of tropical cyclones during 1950-2008, to identify the causal effect of environmental disasters on long-run growth. The data reject hypotheses that disasters stimulate growth or that short-run losses disappear following migrations or transfers of wealth. Instead, national incomes decline, relative to their pre-disaster trend, and do not recover within twenty years. Both rich and poor countries exhibit this response, with losses magnified in countries with less historical cyclone experience. Income losses arise from a small but persistent suppression of annual growth rates spread across the fifteen years following disaster, generating large and significant cumulative effects: a 90th percentile event reduces per capita incomes by 7.4% two decades later, effectively undoing 3.7 years of average development. The gradual nature of these losses render them inconspicuous to a casual observer, however simulations indicate that they have dramatic influence over the long-run development of countries that are endowed with regular or continuous exposure to disaster. Linking these results to projections of future cyclone activity, under conservative discounting assumptions the present discounted cost of "business as usual" climate change is roughly $9.7 trillion larger than previously thought.
Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 28, Number 1, 2012: Recent advances in the valuation of ecosystem services and biodiversity; The economic analysis of biodiversity: an assessment; Banking on extinction: endangered species and speculation; Protecting forests, biodiversity, and the climate: predicting policy impact to improve policy choice; Are investments to promote biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services aligned?; Regulating global biodiversity: what is the problem?; How should we incentivize private landowners to ‘produce’ more biodiversity?; Evaluation of biodiversity policy instruments: what works and what doesn’t?; Biodiversity, poverty, and development.
Economic valuation of the vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline, by Nicola Gallai et al. Ecological Economics, Volume 68, Issue 3, 15 January 2009, Pages 810–821. The study used a bioeconomic approach, which integrated the production dependence ratio on pollinators, for the 100 crops used directly for human food worldwide as listed by FAO. The total economic value of pollination worldwide amounted to €153 billion, which represented 9.5% of the value of the world agricultural production used for human food in 2005. In terms of welfare, the consumer surplus loss was estimated between €190 and €310 billion based upon average price elasticities of − 1.5 to − 0.8, respectively. Vegetables and fruits were the leading crop categories in value of insect pollination with about €50 billion each, followed by edible oil crops, stimulants, nuts and spices. The production value of a ton of the crop categories that do not depend on insect pollination averaged €151 while that of those that are pollinator-dependent averaged €761.
The Cost of Policy Inaction, The case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target. Wageningen, Alterra, Alterra-rapport 1718. May 2008. Baseline scenario (the consequences of no new-policies social and economic development): population increases from ca 6 billion in 2000 to ca 9.1 billion in 2050; Economic growth at 2.8% per year, a conservative growth scenario; Extra land for agriculture, implying additional conversion of natural systems to agricultural land use; Over-exploitation and crashed fisheries in all oceans; no more ocean fish for human consumption or to feed aquaculture; Disappearance of 1300 million hectares (1.5 x the land area of the United States of America) of pristine natural systems to allow intensive agriculture, biofuels and asphalt. The physical consequences are loss of ecosystems services, the products which ecosystems deliver and the work ecosystems do, short term maximisation of food production at the cost of natural ecosystems and biodiversity, loss of regulating, buffer capacity of the world’s ecosystems, for example climate regulation, flood control, water purification and soil quality maintenance and food and water shortages with associated social deprivation for billions of people. The economic consequences are that the annual loss of biodiversity on land by 2050 will have increased to a sum total of loss of ecosystem services equivalent to 14,000 billion Euro. This is equivalent to ca 7% of projected 2050 GDP. In addition, there are losses of ecosystems services of marine and coastal ecosystems which are expected to run up to several thousands of billion per year by 2050. The social consequences will be dramatic. In particular, in developing countries with great dependency on ecosystems services for daily livelihood and shere survival.
Kursar, Thomas A. (2006) Securing Economic Benefits and Promoting Conservation through Bioprospecting
Leclair, T. Utilization of genetic resources in the pharmaceutical industry, the agricultural sector, botanical gardens, the ornamental horticulture industry, the cosmetics sector
Soejarto, D.D. et al (2005) Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: Issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing
The economic value of forest ecosystems (2003), Ecosystem Health, Volume 7(4) December: 284-296, by D. W. Pearce.
Vogel, Joseph Henry (1998) Case Study on Bioprospecting
Learning from the Practitioners: Benefit Sharing Perspectives from Enterprising Communities
The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital, by R. Constanza and et al, Nature, Volume 387: 253-260, (1997).
The Social Value of Using Biodiversity in New Pharmaceutical Product Research (1996), by R. David Simpson and Amy B. Craft, Resources for the Future.

Global Environemnt Facility (GEF)
Biodiversity Mainstreaming In Practice: A Review of GEF Experience. The GEF biodiversity mainstreaming after 2000 has been focused on: developing policy and regulatory frameworks that remove perverse subsidies and provide incentives for biodiversity-positive land and resource use; spatial and land-use planning aiming to maximize production without undermining biodiversity; and biodiversity-positive production practices, with a focus on sectors that have significant biodiversity impacts, through capacity building and implementation of financial mechanisms.
GEF Evaluation of Experience with Conservation Trust Funds
Criteria for the Establishment of Trust Funds within the GEF
Issues and Options in the Design of GEF Supported Trust Funds for Biodiversity Conservation
Expanding FSC Certification at Landscape-level through Incorporating Additional Eco-system Services. Chile, Indonesia, Nepal, Vietnam (GEF 2010), Institutionalizing Payments for Ecosystem Services (GEF 2006), Project for Ecosystem Services (ProEcoServ) Chile, Lesotho, Trinidad and Tobago, Vietnam, South Africa (GEF 2009), Global Science and Innovation Networks for Coral Reef Resilience ScINet CR2 Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Philippines, Tanzania (GEF), Multiplying Environmental and Carbon Benefits in High Andean Ecosystems Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Philippines, Tanzania (GEF 2012)
GEF support to payment for ecosystem services
Financing Protection of the Global Commons: The Case for a Green Planet Contribution (2000)
GEF Evaluation of Experience with Conservation Trust Funds. This evaluation was carried out by the GEF Evaluation Team. Read the full report. The evaluation analyzed the following funds: Belize - The Protected Areas Conservation Trust (PACT); Bhutan - The Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation; Bolivia - FONAMA (The National Fund for the Environment); Brazil - The Brazilian Biodiversity Fund (FUNBIO); Eastern Carpathians (Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine) - The Foundation for Eastern Carpathian Biodiversity Conservation; Guatemala - The Conservation Trust of Guatemala (FCG); Jamaica – Environmental Foundation of Jamaica (EFJ), and the Jamaica National Parks Trust (JNPT); Mexico -Mexican Nature Conservation Fund (FMCN); Peru - The Fund for Natural Areas Protected by the State (FONANPE); Philippine - The Foundation for the Philippine Environment (FPE); South Africa - The Table Mountain Fund (TMF); Uganda - The Mgahinga - Bwindi Impenetrable Forest Conservation Trust (MBIFCT)

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
Memorandum of Cooperation (23 March 1996); Joint Work Programme (04 January 2001); Memorandum of Cooperation (15 October 2006); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
Report on the Technical Workshop on Economic Incentives and Trade Policy (1-3 December 2003)

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Views on opportunities to further enhance the effective engagement of non-Party stakeholders with a view to strengthening the implementation of the provisions of decision 1/CP.21. Engaging non-Party stakeholders: Enhanced engagement in the nationally determined contribution process and the global climate action agenda; Enhanced input to the intergovernmental process; Enhanced practices, processes and mechanisms for engagement.
Catalysing the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions in the context of the 2030 Agenda through South-South cooperation, UN EOSG and UNFCCC. South-South cooperation provides diversified and practical solutions to address climate change in developing countries through catalysing the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). Developing countries can benefit from more Southern solutions that can address both climate change and multiple development challenges through South-South cooperation. 81 per cent of developing countries identifying the provision of international support as a condition for the full implementation of their NDCs and for enhancing ambition over time. The vast majority of developing countries emphasized the need for enhanced international support in the form of finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building. Fifteen developing countries (Afghanistan, Algeria, Benin, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Djibouti, Eritrea, India, Mexico, Singapore, South Sudan and Gambia) refer directly to South-South cooperation in their NDCs. Eight of these countries mention that they consider South-South cooperation a suitable complement to North-South cooperation for both mitigation and adaptation actions, in particular regarding technology transfer and innovation as well as capacity-building in the areas of agriculture, disaster risk reduction, energy, forestry, transport and waste. Brazil, China, Colombia and India include information in their INDCs/NDCs on their plan to enhance South-South cooperation. Other countries have mentioned South-South cooperation in different ways.
Modalities for the accounting of financial resources provided and mobilized through public interventions in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 7, of the Paris Agreement, Technical paper by the secretariat. FCCC/TP/2017/1, 28 April 2017. Overview of current arrangements and developments under and outside the Convention, and the views of Parties and observers from submissions and discussions related to the modalities for the accounting of financial resources provided and mobilized through public interventions.
Biennial submissions from developed country Parties on their updated strategies and approaches for scaling up climate finance from 2014 to 2020, Compilation and synthesis by the secretariat, FCCC/CP/2017/INF.1, 25 April 2017. Expected levels of climate finance mobilized from different sources; Policies, programmes and priorities; Actions and plans to mobilize additional finance; Balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account the needs of developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change; Steps taken to enhance enabling environments

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
UNCCD/GM submission on innovative financial mechanisms

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
Memorandum of Cooperation (13 June 1996); Memorandum of Cooperation (27 March 2006); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)

International Plant Protection Convention
Memorandum of Cooperation (25 February 2004)

Ramsar Convention
Memorandum of Cooperation (19 January 1996); Memorandum of Cooperation (10 May 2005); Memorandum of Cooperation (27 March 2006); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)
Economic Valuation of Wetlands: A Guide for Policy Makers and Planners
The Empirics of Wetland Valuation: A Comprehensive Summary and a Meta-Analysis of the Literature (2003), by L.M., Brander, J.G.M. Florax and J.E. Vermat.
Economic valuation of wetlands: A guide for policy makers and planners. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland, Switzerland.

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Memorandum of Cooperation (28 October 2010) and Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011)

Carpathian Convention
Memorandum of Understanding (29 May 2008)

Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention)
Memorandum of Cooperation (03 March 1997)

Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention), Council of Europe (Bern Convention)
Memorandum of Cooperation (13 March 2001); Memorandum of Cooperation (23 May 2008)

World agroforestry centre
Memorandum of Understanding (11 October 2012)
Rewarding the Upland Poor in Asia for Environmental Services They Provide – RUPES Program

International Energy Agency (IEA)
Perspectives for the Energy Transition: Investment Needs for a Low-Carbon Energy Transition. Transformation of the energy system in line with the “well below 2°C” objective of the Paris Agreement is technically possible but will require significant policy reforms, aggressive carbon pricing and additional technological innovation. Around 70% of the global energy supply mix in 2050 would need to be low-carbon. The largest share of the emissions reduction potential up to 2050 comes from renewables and energy efficiency, but all low-carbon technologies (including nuclear and carbon capture and storage play a role.

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)

Bioversity International: Mainstreaming Agrobiodiversity in Sustainable Food Systems: Scientific Foundations for an Agrobiodiversity Index. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy. Three-quarters of the world’s food today comes from just 12 crops and five animal species and this leaves supplies very vulnerable to disease and pests that can sweep through large areas of monocultures, as happened in the Irish potato famine when a million people starved to death. Reliance on only a few strains also means the world’s fast changing climate will cut yields just as the demand from a growing global population is rising. There are tens of thousands of wild or rarely cultivated species that could provide a richly varied range of nutritious foods, resistant to disease and tolerant of the changing environment. But the destruction of wild areas, pollution and overhunting has started a mass extinction of species on Earth. The focus to date has been on wild animals – half of which have been lost in the last 40 years – but the new report reveals that the same pressures are endangering humanity’s food supply, with at least 1,000 cultivated species already endangered.

Memorandum of Understanding (11 October 2012)
Asia regional workshop on compensation for ecosystem services: a component of the global scoping study on compensation of ecosystem service, 2006, India

Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
Memorandum of Understanding (11 October 2014)
The facts about peatlands. Less than 0.4% of the world’s surface is made up of drained or degrading peatlands, but these account for 5% of all global emissions of carbon dioxide produced directly by human activities. Peatlands cover only around 3-5% of the earth’s surface, but are home to more than 30% of carbon stored in soil worldwide. In the peatlands of Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia, and Sumatra alone, forest cover fell by more than half between 1990 and 2010 – from 77% to 36%.
Trees, forests and water: Cool insights for a hot world. David Ellison, et al, Global Environmental Change 43 (2017) 51–61. The research calls for a reversal of paradigms, from a carbon-centric model to one that treats the hydrologic and climate-cooling effects of trees and forests as the first order of priority. Forests and trees play a major role on water cycles and cooler temperatures, contributing to food security and climate change adaptation. Asia-Pacific’s forest cover has increased by 24 million hectares over 20 years, while the world’s forests diminished by 130 million hectares.
Bellagio Workshop on Payments for Watershed Services, 12-17 March 2007
Uncovering the scope for environmental service payments in the conservation of the North Andean Corridor
Making Nature count: enhancing payments for environmental service initiatives in Ecuador and Colombia
Stakeholders and biodiversity at the local level: building on opportunities in Bolivia and Vietnam
Carbon sequestration and sustainable livelihoods

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Global Food Policy Report 2017. The number of people living in extreme poverty fell below 10 percent of the global population. Global hunger rates are also expected to have fallen in 2016, with less than 11 percent of the world suffering from undernourishment—a drop from 19 percent in 1990. Global food prices fell for the fifth straight year in 2016 due to increased supply. The persistence of hunger and malnutrition in some parts of the world: in West Africa, 10 million people experienced critical levels of food insecurity in 2016. The 2015–2016 El Niño weather event caused poor harvests in many countries around the world, affecting a projected 41 million people in southern Africa, of whom 28 million were in need of immediate humanitarian assistance. In Yemen, almost half the population (14 million of 27.4 million) faced high levels of food insecurity driven primarily by conflict, and in war-torn Syria roughly 4 to 5 million displaced people required urgent food aid throughout the year.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Green Investment Banks: Innovative Public Financial Institutions, Scaling up Private, Low-carbon Investment, OECD Environment Policy Paper No. 6, January 2017. Operational green investment banks (GIBs) and GIB-like entities: California CLEEN Center California, United States 2014; Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) Australia 2012; Connecticut Green Bank Connecticut, United States 2011; Green Energy Market Securitization (GEMS) (Hawaii Green Infrastructure Authority) Hawaii, United States 2014; Green Fund Japan 2013; Malaysian Green Technology Corporation (GreenTech Malaysia), Malaysia 2010; Masdar United Arab Emirates 2006; New Jersey Energy Resilience Bank (ERB) New Jersey, United States 2014; NY Green Bank New York, United States 2014; Rhode Island Infrastructure Bank (RIIB) Rhode Island, United States 2015; Technology Fund Switzerland 2014; UK Green Investment Bank United Kingdom 2012

Engaging the private sector for green growth and climate action: An overview of development co-operation efforts, OECD Development Cooperation Working Papers, No. 34, OECD Publishing, Paris. This paper estimates that 22% of climate-related development finance supported private sector engagement activities in 2013. It also presents a stock-taking of efforts to: mobilise private climate investment, promote green private sector development and harness skills and knowledge of private actors.

Development Co-operation for Private Sector Development: Analytical Framework and Measuring Official Development Finance, OECD Development Co-operation Working Papers, No.32, OECD Publishing, Paris. ODF for private sector development (PSD) amounted to USD 105 billion in 2013, of which 57% was Official Development Assistance (concessional) and 43% Other Official Flows (non-concessional).

Support to fisheries: Levels and impacts, OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers, No. 103, OECD Publishing, Paris. The OECD Fisheries Support Estimate (FSE) database collects and classifies information on budgetary transfers to the fisheries sector in 31 countries that together account for 35% of global fisheries landings. In 2015, the most recent year, it inventories policies and programmes totalling USD 7 billion. Most of this support is found to be directed towards general services to the fishing sector, mainly in the form of fisheries management costs, but also for, inter alia, infrastructure, research and stock enhancement. Approximately USD 500 million per year is used for programmes that deliver funds directly in the hands of fishers. The share of this form of support has been decreasing over time. Payments based on the use of variable inputs are found to be the most likely to provoke increased fishing effort, while payments based on fixed capital formation are most likely to encourage increased capacity levels. Payments based on fishers income are less likely to increase effort or capacity and may be more effective at improving the welfare of fishers. Payments to general services for the sector are least likely to increase effort or fishing capacity.

Marine Protected Areas: Economics, Management and Effective Policy Mixes. Published on June 05, 2017. Drawing on the literature and numerous examples from developed and developing countries, this book highlights how the environmental and cost effectiveness of MPAs can be enhanced. It covers issues including the benefits and costs of MPAs, the need for more strategic siting of MPAs, monitoring and compliance, sustainable finance for MPAs, and the need to embed these in a wider policy mix so as to address the multiple pressures on marine ecosystems.

Highlights of Green Growth Indicators 2017. Natural capital can contribute significantly to output growth. About 23% of output growth in the Russian Federation since 1994 has been due to extraction of subsoil assets. This raises concerns over dependence on natural resource extraction and the need to identify new sources of growth in the long run. Pollution abatement can also affect growth performance. Some countries have achieved economic growth at the expense of environmental quality. Particularly, this is the case of India, Saudi Arabia and China, and some OECD countries such as Turkey, Korea and Mexico. Fossil fuel support amounts to more than USD 60 billion per year in OECD countries. About 90% of green technologies still originate in the OECD, especially in the United States, Japan Germany, Korea and France. The contributions of China and India are rising fast. Industry: In the European Union, the ten most carbon-intensive industries account for 83% of all CO2 emissions, but only 28% of employment and 21% of value added: electricity and gas, rubber and plastic products, land transport, metals, chemicals, coke and refined petroleum, air transport, water transport, agriculture, wholesale and retail trade. Buildings cover 30% more land than in 1990. In OECD countries, exposure to outdoor PM2.5 and ozone is estimated to cause around 0.5 million premature deaths each year. This has an annual welfare cost equivalent to 3.8% of GDP.

Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth. Bringing together the growth and climate agendas, rather than treating climate as a separate issue, could add 1% to average economic output in G20 countries by 2021 and lift 2050 output by up to 2.8%. If the economic benefits of avoiding climate change impacts such as coastal flooding or storm damage are factored in, the net increase to 2050 GDP would be nearly 5%. Key Findings; Synthesis; Technical note on estimates of infrastructure investment needs

Pension fund assets grew in most economies in 2016, May 2017. OECD pension fund investments exceeded the USD 25 trillion mark again like in 2014, reaching their highest level ever at USD 25.4 trillion (or 55.3% of GDP).

Development aid rises again in 2016, Paris, 11 April 2017. net official development assistance (ODA) flows from member countries of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD reached a new peak at USD 142.6 billion. This represented an increase of 8.9% compared to 2015, when adjusting for exchange rates and inflation. Net ODA also rose as a share of gross national income (GNI) to 0.32.

Climate Change Adaptation and Financial Protection: Synthesis of Key Findings from Colombia and Senegal, by Gisela Campillo, Michael Mullan, Lola Vallejo, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 120, OECD Publishing, Paris. Effective climate change policies are needed to reduce the accumulation of risk, combined with instruments and tools to help retain, share or transfer financial losses if an extreme event occurs. These tools and instruments, collectively known as financial protection, can help people cope with the impacts of climate-related disasters, reduce costs of recovery and reconstruction, and encourage risk reduction. Linking financial protection and climate adaptation in development planning and policy has the potential to increase the resilience of affected communities. Tools: Savings or reserve funds; Insurance mechanisms; Catastrophe bonds; Post-disaster credit / Contingent credit; Ex-ante social protection; Humanitarian relief and compensation payments; Remittances.

International trade consequences of climate change, Dellink, R. et al. (2017), OECD Trade and Environment Working Papers, 2017/01, OECD Publishing, Paris. While economies will increasingly rely on trade, climate change will affect trade patterns and specialisation. Changes in the climate system, not least sea level rise and the increasing frequency of extreme events, will modify transport routes and infrastructures, thereby changing the access and possibilities for the international transport of goods and services. Other types of climate impacts, such as those on agriculture and labour productivity, will cause changes in production and specialisation, which will also affect trade. The effects of climate change on trade lead to changes in the comparative advantage of economies, and hence affect trade patterns. The economic consequences of climate change are especially marked in Africa and Asia, where high economic growth rates are combined with increased trade dependency and large damages from climate change. In terms of economic sectors, trade in agricultural commodities is projected to be relatively strongly impacted by climate damages. Producers in the least affected countries can improve their competitive position on both domestic and export markets.

The Political Economy of Biodiversity Policy Reform. Four new case studies: the French tax on pesticides, agricultural subsidy reform in Switzerland, EU payments to Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau to finance marine protected areas via conservation trust funds, and individually transferable quotas for fisheries in Iceland.

Green Finance and Investment: Mobilising Bond Markets for a Low-Carbon Transition. Over EUR 12 billion in insittutional commitments or targets for green bond investment and fourteen green bond funds manages EUR 1.16 billion in May 2016. Potential for low-carbon bond issuance ranges between US$620 billion and US$720 billion per year by 2035.

Sovereign Borrowing Outlook 2017. Aggregate central government marketable debt across the OECD area will gradually increase from USD 41.3 trillion in 2016 to USD 42.2 trillion in 2017, while sovereign net borrowing requirements are expected to remain at USD 1.7 trillion in 2017, approximately the same level as 2016. Sovereign debt burdens remain high by historical standards: surging from 49.8% to 74.6% between 2007 and 2015 in the OECD area, central government marketable debt-to-GDP ratio has started to decline and is estimated to be 73% in 2017. The total debt service of OECD governments has decreased from 45% in 2015 to around 40% of the outstanding marketable debt in 2016.

Global Insurance Market Trends 2016. Gross premiums collected by insurance companies increased in most countries, in the life segment, non-life segment or both.

Green Investment Banks: Scaling up Private Investment in Low-carbon, Climate-resilient Infrastructure, Published on May 31, 2016. This report provides the first comprehensive study of publicly capitalised green investment banks (GIBs), analysing the rationales, mandates and financing activities of this relatively new category of public financial institution. Based on the experience of over a dozen GIBs and GIB-like entities, the report provides a non-prescriptive stock-taking of the diverse ways in which these public institutions are catalysing private investment in low-carbon, climate-resilient infrastructure and other green sectors, with a spotlight on energy efficiency projects. The report also provides practical information to policy makers on how green investment banks are being set up, capitalised and staffed.

Progress Report on approaches to Mobilizing Institutional Investment for Green Infrastructure, September 2016. The role of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) and strategic investment funds (SIFs) in green finance.

2020 projections of Climate Finance towards the USD 100 billion goal: Technical Note, OECD Publishing, OECD (2016).
The Sustainable Development Goals and development co-operation, by Erik Solheim, et al. Debate the Issues: New Approaches to Economic Challenges, 2016. Aid worth 1% of a country’s gross domestic product (GDP) raised economic growth by 0.1%/year on average during 1970-2000. Increases in aid have been followed on average by increases in investment and growth. Southern providers of development co-operation are also increasingly important. China is now a major source of development assistance, particularly in Africa. In addition, it accounts for 20% of all foreign direct investment in developing countries. Based on their own experience, Brazil and Mexico assist Latin American neighbours.
Perspectives on Global Development 2017: International Migration in a Shifting World. While the share of global migrants originating from developing countries has remained fairly stable at around 80% over the last 20 years, the share of developing country migrants heading to high-income countries has jumped from 36% to 51% of the world total. The share of the world population living outside their country of birth has risen from 2.7% in 1995 to 3.3% in 2015, an increase of about 85 million people in two decades to roughly a total of 245 million international migrants. The United Nations’ proposed Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration is a positive development towards promoting more effective international co-operation. The Global Compact on Refugees will be another important component towards creating a robust framework to deal with future refugee crises.
The Role of Development Finance in Climate Action Post-2015: Country ownership to enhance coherence and effectiveness of finance, greater mainstreaming of environment and climate in development co-operation, reducing fragmentation of climate finance, improving access to climate finance – especially for LDCs and SIDS, defining climate finance and increasing transparency, increasing financial resources and pressure on ODA, improving predictability of financial support, competition between climate and development finance, prioritising public international climate finance for particularly vulnerable countries and people.
Official Development Finance for Infrastructure: With a Special Focus on Multilateral Development Banks. Infrastructure refers to the DAC 5 sectors of 140 (Water & Sanitation), 210 (Transport & Storage), 220 (Communications), and 230(Energy Generation and Supply) in the DAC Creditor Reporting System (CRS). Total official support to infrastructure amounted to USD 60 billion, 43% was disbursed by bilateral development partners and 57% by multilaterals. Concessional and non-concessional ODF commitments for infrastructure increased at a compounded annual growth rate of 7% in the period 2005-2014. In addition, the share of infrastructure in total sector-allocable ODF by development partners also grew from 20% to 26% in the same period.
Bilateral biodiversity-related ODA reached USD 8.7 billion on average per year in 2014-15, accounting for 6% of total bilateral ODA commitments. Nearly half (46%) targeted biodiversity as a primary objective. For the rest (54%), biodiversity was a secondary objective. In 2014-15, the large majority (80%) of bilateral biodiversity-related ODA jointly pursued objectives in support of the two other Rio Conventions on climate change and desertification, which is an increase from 47% in 2006-07.
Public Goods and Externalities: Agri-Environmental Policy Measures in Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, The United States
OECD Rio Marker presentation, by Christina van Winkle and Anna Drutschinin, WGRI-5 Panel Discussion: Success and Challenges in Tracking and Reporting on CBD-Related Resource Mobilization, 19 June 2014, Montreal

Lessons from Established and emerging Green Investment Bank Models, OECD Green Investment Financing Forum Background Note, May 2014. What are Green Investment Banks (GIBs) and how can they facilitate a shift to a low-carbon economy?; Rationales, Philosophies, Business Models and Roles of GIBs; Target Sectors; Administrative configurations, leadership and reporting; Capitalisation and Funding; Instruments, Vehicles, Techniques, Tools and Interventions; Green Investment Banks and Institutional Investors; Domestic Policy Context and Green Investment Banks.

Workshop on Financing Mechanisms for Biodiversity: Examining Opportunities and Challenges
State-Owned Enterprises: Trade Effects and Policy Implications
Institutional Investors and Green Infrastructure Investments: Selected Case Studies. The first chapter examines the channels through which institutional investors can access green infrastructure, assesses the extent to which this is currently happening, and identifies the barriers to scaling up these investment flows. The second chapter presents four case studies: on utility-scale solar PV power generation in the United States, sustainable agriculture in Brazil, off-shore wind energy in the United Kingdom, and the securitisation of on-shore wind farms in Germany and France. The third chapter uses the conclusions on the case studies to draw out broader lessons for governments on the policy settings which may support investment in green infrastructure by institutional investors. These include, inter alia, ensuring a stable and integrated policy environment, addressing market failures, providing an infrastructure road map, facilitating the development of appropriate green financing vehicles, and promoting market transparency and improved data collection.
Making Green Growth Deliver: Review of the Implementation of the OECD Environmental Strategy for the First Decade of the 21st Century, Meeting of the Environment Policy Committee (EPOC) at Ministerial Level, 29-30 March 2012
Scaling Up Finance for Biodiversity and the Role of Biodiversity Offsets, by Katia Karousakis, OECD Environment Directorate; Biodiversity Policy Response Indicators: Monitoring Progress Towards Aichi Biodiversity Targets 3 and 20, by Christina Van Winkle, OECD Environment Directorate; Official Development Assistance for Biodiversity, by Anna Drutschinin and Juan Casado-Asensio, OECD Development Co-operation Directorate; Measuring and Monitoring External Development Finance for Biodiversity, The OECD Development Assistance Committee Statistics & Rio Markers, by Anna Drutschinin, OECD DAC Secretariat; An overview of Biodiversity Financing Mechanisms, by Katia Karousakis, OECD Secretariat; Scoping paper on biodiversity and development cooperation, by Anna Drutschninin and Juan Casado Asensio, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
State-Owned Enterprise Governance Reform: An Inventory of Recent Change (2011)
Submission on innovative financial mechanisms: Part 1, Part 2
Training and Beyond: Seeking Better Practices for Capacity Development, by Jenny Pearson, 4 April 2011
Capacity Development: Lessons Learned and Actions for Busan and Beyond, Synthesis Report, 15 March 2011.
Innovative financing to fund development: progress and prospects, by Elisabeth Sandor, Simon Scott and Julia Benn, DCD Issues Brief, November 2009.
OECD Experience in Reforming Environmentally Harmful Subsidies (2009)
Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. Fish is the most valuable agricultural commodity that is traded internationally, with net export revenues earned by developing countries reaching $17.7 billion in 2001—more than coffee, cocoa, sugar and tea combined.
Biofuel Support Policies: An Economic Assessment (2008)
Handbook for Appraisal of Environmental Projects Financed from Public Funds (2007)
OECD/DAC Reporting Directives for the Creditor Reporting System 2007, including the Rio Markers in its annex 7
Environmental Regulation and Competition, DAF/COMP(2006)30, 17 November 2006. The objectives of competition and environmental policies are complementary. Environmental regulation can increase concentration and raise barriers to entry. It can also give rise to anticompetitive practices. They can be misused in predatory schemes to exclude or disadvantage rivals and also facilitate price-fixing and other collusive schemes. Competition authorities take environmental regulations into account in their everyday work but do not provide special consideration for environmental impacts or environmental overrides. Environmental policies should be designed to achieve their aims without unnecessary restrictions of competition. Competition authorities should help environmental agencies and legislatures find ways to achieve environmental objectives which are least restrictive of competition.
Financial Support to Fisheries: Implications For Sustainable Development (2006)
The Message from Paris - Outcome of the Conference on Biodiversity in European Development Cooperation (Paris, 19-21 September 2006); Background paper on Biodiversity in European Development Cooperation (en es fr)
Framework for Common Action around Shared Goals, adopted by OECD Development and Environment Ministers at the Meeting of the OECD Development Assistance Committee and the Environment Policy Committee at Ministerial Level (Paris, 4 April 2006)
DAC Guidelines and Reference Series: Environmental Fiscal Reform for Poverty Reduction (2005)
Some OECD Usage-of-Terms for Biodiversity (2005)
Environmentally Harmful Subsidies: Challenges For Reform (2005)
OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-owned Enterprises (2005)
Environmental Goods and Services: A Synthesis of Country Studies, OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper No. 2005-03
Background paper for the OECD workshop on multilateral environmental agreements and private investments: Promoting business contribution to addressing global environmental problems (2005)
Economic incentives and increasing business involvement in the conservation of fauna and flora (2005)
The mutual benefits of NGO-business partnerships
What are the gains - for business and others - from private investment that contributes to MEA implementation?
Corporate social responsibility – a step towards stronger involvement of business in MEA implementation?
Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment: Lessons from the Mining Sector
Corporate social responsibility – a step towards stronger involvement of business in MEA implementation?
Multilateral Environmental Agreements and Private Investment: Workshop Proceedings and Key Messages (2005)
Private sector involvement in implementing multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs): A closer look at the natural products industry
MEA-based Markets for Ecosystem Services
Business Contribution to Addressing Global Environmental Problems
How can private sector help to implement an international convention to conserve wetlands?
How can intergovernmental organisations promote private investment that supports MEA implementation? The example of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Environmental Goods and Services A Synthesis of Country Studies, OECD Trade and Environment Working Paper No. 2005-03.
The Costs of Inaction with Respect to Biodiversity Loss
Financial Cooperation, Rio Conventions and Common Concerns, (Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, Volume 14, Issue 3, pages 212–224, November 2005)
Report on Implementation of the 2004 Council Recommendation on the Use of Economic Instruments in Promoting the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity
Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals (2004)
Individual Transferable Quotas as an Incentive Measure for the Conservation and the Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity
Financing Global And Regional Public Goods Through ODA: Analysis and Evidence from the OECD Creditor Reporting System (2004)
The "Sale" of Biodiversity to Nature Tourists (2003)
Environment and Export Credits: 2002 Revised Coverage Matrix
Philanthropic Foundations and Development Co-operation, including foundations in United States, Sweden, Denmark, United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, Australia, Bangladesh, China, Inida, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Economic Issues in Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources: a Framework for Analysis
OECD Workshop on Environmentally Harmful Subsidies (2002)
The DAC Guidelines: Integrating the Rio Conventions into Development Co-operation
Environmental Benefits of Foreign Direct Investment: a Literature Review (2002)
The Insurance Industry and the Conversation of Biodiversity: An Analysis of the Perspects for Market Creation (2002)
Market Creation for Biodiversity: The Role of Organic Farming in the EU and US (2002)
Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment: Lessons from the Mining Sector (2002)
Environmental Benefits of Foreign Direct Investment: a Literature Review
The Biodiversity Benefits of Coral Reef Ecosystems: Values and Markets, ENV/EPOC/GSP/BIO(2001)5/FINAL, 29-Mar-2002.
Study on the insurance industry and the conservation of biological diversity: An analysis of the prospects for market creation
Environmentally Related Taxes in OECD Countries: Issues and Strategies (2001)
First Draft of the Policy Guidance on Mainstreaming the Global Environment Conventions in Development Co-Operation
Corporate Responsibility: Results of a fact-finding mission on private initiatives, February 2001
Trends in Environmental Expenditure and International Commitments for the Environment in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 1996-2001
Encouraging Environmentally Sustainable Growth: Experience in OECD Countries, O’Brien, P. and A. Vourc'h, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 293, OECD Publishing, Paris.
OECD Sourcebook on Environmental Funds: The Sourcebook provides basic information and data on the revenue, expenditure, main features and activities of twenty-one environmental funds in CEE and EECCA. Read the regional overview and profiles of environmental funds in the region. The Sourcebook features the following funds: Belarus - The Republican and Regional/Local Environmental Funds; Bulgaria - The National Environmental Protection Fund, and the National Trust Ecofund; Czech Republic - The State Environment Fund; Estonia - The Environmental Fund; Hungary - The Central Environmental Protection Fund; Kazakhstan - The National Environmental Protection Fund; Kyrgyzstan - Republican and Local Environmental Funds; Latvia - The Environmental Investment Fund; Lithuania - The Environmental Investment Fund; Moldova - The National and Local Environmental Funds; Poland - The National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management, the Ecofund, and the Cracow Provincial Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management; Russia - The Federal Environmental Fund, the National Pollution Abatement Facility, and the Novgorod Regional Environmental Fund; Slovakia - The State Environmental Fund; Slovenia - The Environmental Development Fund; Ukraine - The State Environmental Protection Fund; Uzbekistan - Republican and Sub-National Environmental Protection Funds
OECD performance reviews of national environmental funds are available on Czech Republic (1999), Estonia (1998), Kazakhstan (2000), Moldova (2002), Poland (1998), Slovenia (2000), and Ukraine (2001).
The Insurance Industry and the Conservation of Biological Diversity, An Analysis of the Prospects for Market Creation, by David Pearce, University College London
Fisheries Management Costs: Concepts and Studies

Summary of Environmental Assessment Policies and Procedures for Development Assistance Activities
A Comparison of Management Systems for Development Co-Operation in OECD/DAC Members (1999), by Hyun-sik Chang et al. Policies and approaches; public opinion, information and development education; organizational frameworks (aid policies and legislation; the structures of government; management structures and issues; the international level); sources of funds; allocation of funds (choices and priorities, the bilateral channel); project implementation; evaluation; monitoring and independent review.
Improving the Environment through Reducing Subsidies (1998)
A History of the Development Assistance Committee and the Development Co-Operation Directorate in Dates, Names and Figures, Helmut Fuhrer, 1996
The St Petersburg Guidelines on Environmental Funds in the Transition to a Market Economy
St Petersburg Guidelines on Environmental Funds in the Transition to a Market Economy: The guidelines were developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Read the document
Environmental Funds in CEEC/NIS: Trends, Issues and Institutional Strengthening Needs
Lessons Learnt from Experience with Debt-for-Environment Swaps in Economies in Transition
OECD Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure: Expanding access to clean energy for green growth and development
Unlocking the Potential of South-South Cooperation: Policy Recommendations from the Task Team on South-South Cooperation
Triangular Co-operation and Aid Effectiveness: Can triangular co-operation make aid more effective?
Financing Global and Regional Public Goods Through ODA: Analysis and Evidence From the OECD Creditor Reporting System, Working Paper No. 232
Innovative Approaches to Funding the Millennium Development Goals, Policy Brief No.24
Environmental benefits of Foreign Direct Investment: A literature review
Foreign Direct Investment and the Environment - lessons from the mining sector
Background Paper on Valuing Environmental Benefits and Damages in the NIS: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Concerns into Policy and Investment Decisions
Handbook of Market Creation for Biodiversity: Issues in Implementation
Integrating Public Environmental Expenditure within Multi-year Budgetary Frameworks
Good Practices of Public Environmental Expenditure Management in Transition Economies
OECD Council Recommendation on Good Practices for Public Environmental Expenditure Management
OECD Work on Defining and Measuring Subsidies in Fisheries
Environmentally Harmful Subsidies
Environmentally Harmful Subsidies: Policy Issues And Challenges
Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Political Economy Aspects
Strengthening Development Partnership: a Working Checklist, OECD, 1998
Donor Assistance to Capacity Development in Environment: Development Co-operation Guidelines Series, OECD, 1995
Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Global and Regional Aspects of the Development and Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment: Guidelines on Aid and Environment, Series 8, OECD, 1995
Guidelines for Aid Agencies for Improved Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Wetlands: Guidelines on Aid and Environment, Series 9, OECD, 1995
Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Global Environmental Problem: Guidelines on Aid and Environment, Series 4, OECD, 1992
Donor Assistance to Capacity Development in Environment: Development Co-operation Guidelines Series, OECD
Strengthening Development Partnership: a Working Checklist, OECD
Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Global Environmental Problem: Guidelines on Aid and Environment, Series 4, OECD
Guidelines for Aid Agencies on Global and Regional Aspects of the Development and Protection of the Marine and Coastal Environment: Guidelines on Aid and Environment, Series 8, OECD
Guidelines for Aid Agencies for Improved Conservation and Sustainable Use of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Wetlands: Guidelines on Aid and Environment, Series 9, OECD

Leading Group on Innovative Financing 2016
Innovating for Biodiversity Conservation in African Protected Areas: Funding and Incentives, Renaud Lapeyre & Yann Laurans, Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI), December 2016. Innovating together with communities: the Gola Rainforest, Sierra Leone. Innovating in public and private combination for conservation: South Africa’s Biodiversity Stewardship and Fiscal Benefits approach. Innovatively securing finance and ecological results: an environmental trust fund for protected areas in Côte d’Ivoire.
Innovative initiatives for biodiversity financing, Study summary, Full report, Report compiled by Judicaël Fétiveau, Alain Karsenty (CIRAD), Aurélien Guingand (CDC Biodiversité), Christian Castellanet (GRET). Directorate-General of Global Affairs, Development and Partnerships, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development - DGM, 2014. Green markets: Certifying products or sectors, Labelling landscapes. Converting harmful subsidies: Identifying subsidies that are harmful to biodiversity, Making the reform of harmful subsidies an operational reality. Superoffsetting damage to biodiversity: Offsetting principles and methods, Safeguard and guarantee clauses, In-kind offsets, the principle of superoffsets and the establishment of an international fund.
Innovative Financing for Development: Scalable Business Models that Produce Economic, Social, and Environmental Outcomes, Innovative Financing Initiative, An initiative of the Global Development Incubator. The focus of innovative financing is shifting from the mobilization of resources through innovative fundraising approaches to the delivery of positive social and environmental outcomes through market-based instruments.
Innovative financing for Education: Moving Forward, International Expert Report, February 2012. "Ready-to-go" financing mechanisms for education: Education Venture Fund, Debt Conversion Development Bonds, Diaspora Bonds, Travellers Savings Fund for Development. Other tracks to finance education: Public Private partnerships, Private fundraising exercises, Micro donations from individuals: example of payroll giving.
Innovative financing for development, the I– 8 group, Leading Innovative Financing for Equity, coordinator: Mr. Philippe Douste-Blazy, December 2009. Eight Innovative Mechanisms: UNITAID, IFFIm–GAVI, Advance Market Commitments, the Voluntary Solidarity Contribution for UNITAID, (product) RED and the Global Fund, Debt2Health, Carbon Market, Socially Responsible Investments.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
PARKS. IUCN WCPA (2017). The International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation, Volume 23.1, Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Protected areas managed or co-managed with non-governmental actors increased from 4% to 23% in the period 1990 to 2010. Increased diversification is described as more likely to contribute to, among other benefits: increased resilience; improved conservation and socioeconomic outcomes; and better inclusion of local communities and an integrated landscape approach in protected area governance. Three case studies of innovative financing and management of protected areas in Africa: a Benefit Sharing Agreement to compensate local communities dependent on the Gola rainforest in Sierra Leone; biodiversity stewardship agreements with private landowners in South Africa; and the use of debt swaps and funding agreements to sustain Côte d’Ivoire’s protected area network.
Managing MIDAs: Harmonising the management of Multi-Internationally Designated Areas: Ramsar Sites, World Heritage sites, Biosphere Reserves and UNESCO Global Geoparks. Schaaf, T. and Clamote Rodrigues, D. (2016). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. xvi + 140 pp. Out of more than 3,300 Internationally Designated Areas in 2015, around 263 were located in areas with at least two overlapping jurisdictions.
Nature-based Solutions to address global societal challenges, by Cohen-Shacham, E., Walters, G., Janzen, C. and Maginnis, S. (eds.) (2016). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. xiii + 97pp.
USA: Restoration of Cache la Poudre River to recover ecological function and reduce flood risk in Fort Collins, Colorado.
Japan: Wetlands and rice paddy fields contribute to biodiversity conservation, flood control and the local economy.
UK: A collaborative approach to managed realignment of coastal defences in South-East England.
Rwanda: Forest Landscape Restoration as a national priority
Ecuador: One landowner’s approach to forest restoration and sustainable management.
Jordan: Securing rights and restoring lands for improved livelihoods.
Costa Rica: Securing livelihoods through mangrove conservation and restoration.
USA: Restoration of wetlands and barrier islands for storm protection in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.
Spain: Developing the Barcelona Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plan.
Guatemala and Mexico: Implementing transboundary water governance through community ecosystem-based action in the Tacaná
Worldwide Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Systemic Pesticides on Biodiversity and Ecosystems
Debt swaps for sustainable development
Enhancing food security through forest landscape restoration: Lessons from Burkina Faso, Brazil, Guatemala, Viet Nam, Ghana, Ethiopia and Philippines. By Kumar, C., Begeladze, S., Calmon, M. and Saint-Laurent, C., (eds.). (2015). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 5-217.
From degraded to functional restored forest land: Smallholder farmers curbing food insecurity in central Burkina Faso
Cocoa agroforestry system as an alternative for degraded pastureland restoration, food security and livelihoods development among smallholders in a Brazilian Amazon agricultural frontier
Agroforesty system kuxur rum enhancing food and nutritional security in Guatemala
Mangrove forest restoration in northern Viet Nam
Restoring degraded forest landscape for food security: Evidence from cocoa agroforestry systems, Ghana.
Economic contribution of communal land restoration to food security in Ethiopia: Can institutionalization help?
Evidence-based best practice community-based forest restoration in Biliran: Integrating food security and livelihood improvements into watershed rehabilitation in the Philippines
Safe Havens: Protected Areas for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation. Murti, R. and Buyck, C. (ed.) (2014). Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. xii + 168 pp.
Australia: The ecosystem service value of protected areas for cyclone protection in Queensland, Australia
Barbados: Economics of climate adaptation in Barbados – facts for decision making
Cambodia: Reducing disaster risks to mangrove forest livelihoods through watershed-based protected area management
Canada: Coastal ecosystems in Kouchibouguac National Park of Canada: adaptation possibilities for protecting traditional knowledge of a local community
Guatemala: Thinking outside the protected area boundaries for flood risk management: the Monterrico Multiple Use Natural Reserve in Guatemala
India: Mangrove forests enhance rice cropland resilience to tropical cyclones: evidence from the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area
India: Traditional knowledge, ecosystem services and disaster risk reduction in Manas World Heritage Site and Biosphere Reserve, India
Italy: Adaptation to Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management in the Po River Delta Protected Area
Madagascar: Pioneering climate change adapted Marine Protected Area management in Madagascar
New Zealand: Potential roles for coastal protected areas in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: a case study of dune management in Christchurch, New Zealand
Peru: Climate Change Adaptation in the Peruvian Andes: implementing no-regret measures in the Nor Yauyos-Cochas Landscape Reserve
Philippines: The role of conservation agreements in disaster risk reduction: the case of Mount Mantalingahan Protected Landscape (MMPL) in the Philippines
Spain: Human perturbation and environmental governance of the coastal lagoon of A Frouxeira, Spain, for seasonal flood mitigation of suburban dwellings
South Africa: Contribution of protected areas in mitigation against potential impacts of climate change and livelihoods in the Albany Thicket, South Africa
Uganda: Initiatives to combat landslides, floods and effects of climate change in Mt Elgon Region
USA: Hurricane Katrina, the role of US National Parks on the northern Gulf of Mexico and post storm wetland restoration
Viet Nam: Building Resilience in Hoi An city, Viet Nam through the Cham Islands Marine Protected Area
Viet Nam: Integration of Climate Change and Disaster Risk Strategies into Local Natural Resources Management in Viet Nam
Aligning biodiversity compensation and REDD+: a primer on integrating private sector conservation financing schemes in the tropics and sub-tropics, November 2013
IUCN submission on innovative financial mechanisms
Natural Solutions: Protected areas helping people cope with climate change, by Dudley, N., S. Stolton, A. Belokurov, L. Krueger, N. Lopoukhine, K. MacKinnon, T. Sandwith and N. Sekhran (2010), IUCNWCPA, TNC, UNDP, WCS, The World Bank and WWF, Gland, Switzerland, Washington DC and New York, USA.
Madagascar: around 6 million ha of new protected areas are being created, responsible for 4 million t of avoided CO2 a year
Tanzania: the Eastern Arc Mountains store over 151 million t C, 60 per cent of which is in existing forest reserves
Belarus: on-going restoration and protection of degraded peatlands is leading to an annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 448,000 t CO2 from peatland fires and mineralization
Russian Federation: the protection of 1.63 million ha of virgin taiga forests and peat soils in the Komi Republic is ensuring that their store of over 71.5 million t C is protected
Bolivia, Mexico and Venezuela: protected areas contain 25 million ha of forest, storing over 4 billion t C, estimated to be worth between US$39-$87 billion
Canada: 4,432 million t C is sequestered in 39 national parks, at a value of between US$72-78 billion
Brazil: protected areas and indigenous lands in the Brazilian Amazon are likely to prevent an estimated 670,000 km² of deforestation by 2050, representing 8 billion t of avoided carbon emissions
Global: 33 of the world’s 105 largest cities derive their drinking water from catchments within forest protected areas
Global: 112 studies in marine protected areas found that they increased size and population of fish
Kenya: improved fishery health through protection of coral reefs is providing dual benefits for coral reef conservation and per capita income for local people
Papua New Guinea: in Kimbe a locally-managed marine protected area network is being designed, focusing on resilience to climate change, to protect coral reefs, coastal habitats and food security
Global: over 100 studies in protected areas have identified important crop wild relatives
Colombia: the Alto Orito Indi-Angue Sanctuary was set up explicitly to protect medicinal plants
Trinidad and Tobago: the restoration and conservation of the Nariva wetlands recognises their importance as a carbon sink, a high biodiversity ecosystem and a natural buffering system against coastal storms
Sri Lanka: the Muthurajawella protected area has flood protection valued at over US$5 million/year
Australia: management of Melbourne’s forested catchments (almost half of which are protected areas) is being adapted in the face of climate change scenarios to minimise water yield impacts
Switzerland: 17 per cent of forests are managed to stop avalanches, worth US$2-3.5 billion per year
Economic Valuation of Large Marine Ecosystems: Report from the IUCN workshop, July 29-30, 2007
Conference Proceedings: Biodiversity in European Development Cooperation, Paris, 19-21 September 2006
Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A global review of challenges and options
Integrating Mining and Biodiversity Conservation: Case studies from around the world
Biodiversity offsets: Views, experience, and the business case (2004)
Markets for carbon offsets
Biodiversity IN Development: Guiding Principles. Principle A: Adopt an ecosystem perspective and multi-sectoral approach to development cooperation programmes (taking into account the impacts on adjacent and downstream areas). Principle B: Promote fair and equitable sharing of costs and benefits from biodiversity conservation and sustainable use, at and between all levels: local, national, regional and international. Principle C: Encourage full stakeholder participation, including partnerships between civil society, government and private sector. Principle D: Ensure that institutional arrangements are effective, transparent, accountable, inclusive and responsive. Principle E: Ensure that development cooperation projects and programmes are consistent with the wider policy framework, and/or changes are made to introduce supportive policies and laws. Principle F: Provide and use accurate, appropriate, multi-disciplinary information, which is both accessible to and understood by all stakeholders. Principle G: Development cooperation investments must be sensitive to, and complement, local and national structures, processes and capacities.
Biodiversity IN Development: Strategic Approach for Integrating Biodiversity in Development Cooperation. Policy framework (EC development policy, EC environment policies, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Macro-economic policies and trade practices (Removal of perverse policies, Policy incentives for improved biodiversity management), Capacity building. Programming: Country Support Strategies, Regional initiatives, Reversing the loss of environmental resources, Guiding Principles – environmental sustainability, Capacity building. Projects: Land-use options (protection, sustainable use, conversion), Spectrum of choice, Rural development and food security (Intensive production systems, Livelihoods depending on non-domesticated species, Biodiversity protection and development), Tools for integrating biodiversity into development projects (Land-use planning, Environmental Impact Assessments), EC Environmental Integration Manual
Perspectives on incentive measures
Perverse Subsidies
Subsidy Reform: Doing More to Help the Environment by Spending Less on Activities that Harm it
Business and Biodiversity: A Guide for the Private Sector (1997)
Markets for Ecosystem Services – New Challenges and Opportunities for Business and the Environment: A Perspective
Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting: Findings from Nine Case Studies
The Nature of Benefits and the Benefits of Nature: Why Wildlife Conservation Has Not Economically Benefitted Communities in Africa
Economic Aspects of Community Involvement in Sustainable Forest Management in Eastern and Southern Africa
The Economic Value of Biodiversity IUCN
The Underlying Causes of Biodiversity Decline: An Economic Analysis
Dryland Opportunities: A new paradigm for people, ecosystems and development
Training Manual: Economic Valuation and Environmental Assessment
Report on Investing in Biodiversity: A workshop at the 5th Global Biodiversity Forum, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1-3 November 1996
Report from Financing Biodiversity Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities, Convened by IUCN and CSERGE, Harare, Zimbabwe, 13-15 September 1995
Workshop on financing biodiversity conservation, Harare, Zimbabwe, 13-15 September 1995: Report from Financing Biodiversity Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities
The Economic Value of Biodiversity, 1994.

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)
Conservation Enterprise: What Works, Where and for Whom? (2011)
The challenges of environmental mainstreaming: Experience of integrating environment into development institutions and decisions, Barry Dalal-Clayton and Steve Bass, IIED 2009
All that glitters: A review of payments for watershed services in developing countries, by Ina Porras et al. 2008, Natural Resource Issues No. 11. International Institute for Environment and Development. London, UK. This review identified 50 ongoing schemes, 8 advanced proposals and 37 preliminary proposals for PWS. Although over 70% of the local schemes receive some funds from the private sector or from fees paid by water users, there is still heavy dependence on government and international donors both for start-up costs and the payments themselves. Payment levels are mostly determined administratively in the national programmes.
Exploring the market for voluntary carbon offsets (2006)
The Cost of Avoiding Deforestation: Report prepared for the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change, 2006.
The Cost of Avoiding Deforestation Report prepared for the Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change
Financing for Environment and Development (2004)
Scoping paper on Individual Transferable Quotas for Acipenseriformes spp. in the Caspian Sea (2004)
Silver Bullet or Fools’ Gold: A global review of markets for forest environmental services and their impact on the poor, by Natasha Landell-Mills and Ina T. Porras, March 2002. case studies. Market failure and creation: a conceptual framework; markets for biodiversity conservation (72 cases); markets for carbon offsets (75 cases); markets for watershed protection (61 cases); markets for landscape beauty (51 cases); bundling forest environmental services. Potential ways forward in developing pro-poor markets: formalize forest service property rights held by poor people; define appropriate commodities; devise cost-effective payment mechanisms; strengthen cooperative institutions; invest in training and education; establish a market support centre; improve access to finance.
The Economics of Non-Timber Forest Benefits: An Overview, November 1998

International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Standards and Biodiversity: Thematic Review. The report examines the intersection of 15 sets of voluntary sustainability standards in commodity production and biodiversity protection and identifies key policy options. Based on a review of the certification levels of specific commodities, including banana, cocoa, coffee, cotton, palm oil, soy, sugarcane and tea, it concludes that the major agricultural standards contain significant requirements related to biodiversity conservation. It also shows, however, that implementation of standards, being driven by market forces, is at best only partially aligned with biodiversity protection.

A new template for notifying subsidies to the WTO (2007)
Biofuels – At What Cost? Impacts of subsidies for ethanol and biodiesel
Subsidizing Biofuels Backfires (2007)
Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Potential Tool for Multilateral Environmental Agreements, read the report
Exploring the Links: Human Well-being, Poverty and Ecosystem Services, read the report
Markets for Ecosystem Services: A Potential Tool for Multilateral Environmental Agreements

World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
Social Capital Protocol: Making companies that truly value people more successful, Stage 1: Frame (Step 1. Understand social capital and its relevance to the business; Step 2. Identify the business case and potential business decisions; Step 3. Prioritize social capital issues). Stage 2: Scope (Step 4. Determine target audience and objectives; Step 5. Set boundaries; Step 6. Define the impact pathway). Stage 3: Measure and Value (Step 7. Select appropriate valuation technique; Step 8. Choose indicators and metrics; Step 9. Undertake or commission measurement and valuation). Stage 4: Apply and Integrate (Step 10. Apply results to key business decisions; Step 11. Integrate social capital into business processes; Step 12. Contribute to mainstreaming)
Better Business, Better World, the report of the Business & Sustainable Development Commission, January 2017. It has identified 60 sustainable and inclusive market “hotspots” across four key areas (energy; cities; food and agriculture; health and wellbeing: representing around 60 percent of the real economy) that could create at least US$12 trillion in business value by 2030 and generate up to 380 million jobs.
Mainstreaming and Assessment: A WBCSD perspective, by Violaine Berger, WBCSD
Guide to Corporate Ecosystem Valuation: A framework for improving corporate decision-making. Stage 1 – scoping, stage 2 – planning, stage 3 – valuation, stage 4 – application, stage 5 – embedding.
Sustainability Pays Off: An analysis about the stock exchange performance of members of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) (2004)

World Wildlife Fund (WWF)
Memorandum of Cooperation (27 March 2006); Memorandum of Cooperation (20 September 2011); Memorandum of Understanding (10 November 2016)
Five years, five rivers report 2017. WWF has been working on freshwater conservation in five river basins – the Ganges, Mara, Mekong, Pantanal and Yangtze – over five years of a programme funded by HSBC. WWF has been working in partnership with HSBC for 15 years, most recently as part of the HSBC Water Programme.
Preventing Paper Parks: How to make the EU nature laws work. A minimum of €5.8 billion per year is needed to manage and restore the Natura 2000 network in a way which would release its full potential for nature and people. These investments are greatly outweighed by the benefits, which are estimated at €200-300 billion a year. There are 1.2–2.2 billion visitor days to Natura 2000 sites each year, generating recreational benefits worth €5-9 billion annually. In Europe, around 4.4 million jobs are directly dependent on the maintenance of healthy ecosystems, a significant proportion of which are situated within Natura 2000 sites. Among reported breaches in the “Nature” area, 85 per cent were initiated by complaints by NGOs; for breaches in other environmental areas, like waste, air, chemicals and water, the European Commission initiated 69 per cent of cases. Of all the cases reported under the Nature Directives, only one in five (19 per cent) led to action by the European Commission.
Power Forward 3.0: How the largest US companies are capturing business value while addressing climate change. Nearly half of the companies in the 2016 Fortune 500 have set targets to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG), improve energy efficiency, and/or increase renewable energy sourcing—up five percentage points from our last report in 2014. Nearly 80,000 emission-reducing projects by 190 Fortune 500 companies reporting data showed nearly $3.7 billion in savings in 2016 alone. The annual emission reductions from these efforts are equivalent to taking 45 coal-fired power plants offline for one year. The largest companies in the Fortune 500–the Fortune 100–continue to lead: Sixty-three percent of Fortune 100 companies have set one or more clean energy targets.
Halting the illegal trade of cites species from world heritage sites, by Dalberg Global Development Advisors. Many World Heritage sites host large populations of rare plant and animal species, including almost a third of all remaining wild tigers, and 40 per cent of all African elephants. Generally, harvesting of these species is forbidden in World Heritage sites. However, poaching, illegal logging and illegal fishing of CITES-listed species occurs in more than 25 per cent of all natural and mixed World Heritage sites, and has contributed to the inscription of 14 sites on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Estimating economic losses to tourism in Africa from the illegal killing of elephants. Nature Communications, 1 November 2016. Elephant poaching costs African economies US $25 million per year in lost tourism revenue. Reducing desire for ivory: a psychosocial guide to address ivory consumption.
Protecting People through Nature: Natural World Heritage Sites as Drivers of Sustainable Development, A report 2016 by Dalberg. nearly half of all natural World Heritage sites were under threat from harmful industrial activities like mining, oil and gas drilling, and construction of large-scale infrastructure, with millions of people impacted. Eleven million people, equivalent to the population of Portugal, depend on these sites, and could be affected negatively by the impacts of harmful industrial activities. The world’s natural protected areas receive eight billion visits per year. One site alone, the Great Barrier Reef, has documented direct expenditures on tourism and recreational activities that total US$6.9 billion per year. Australia’s Great Barrier Reef contributes to the employment of 69,000 people through tourism, recreation, fishing and research activities. Over half of all World Heritage sites provide important soil stabilization, flood prevention and carbon sequestration. It is estimated that 10.5 billion tonnes of carbon is contained within World Heritage forest sites.
Living Planet Report 2016: Risk and resilience in a new era. On average, monitored species population abundance declined by 58 per cent between 1970 and 2012. Monitored species are increasingly affected by pressures from unsustainable agriculture, fisheries, mining and other human activities that contribute to habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, climate change and pollution. By 2020, species populations may have declined on average by 67 per cent over the last half-century. There is a clear challenge for humanity – as driving force into the Anthropocene - to alter our course so that we operate within the environmental limits of our planet and maintain or restore resilience of ecosystems.
Living Planet Report 2016, Risk and resilience in a new era. The worldwide vertebrate populations plunged by 58% between 1970 and 2012.
Conservation Finance: Moving beyond donor funding toward an investor-driven approach
Marine protected areas: Smart investments in ocean health. WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Benefits exceed costs across a range of scenarios that targeted different criteria for MPA implementation to protect 10 or 30 per cent of marine and coastal areas. The economic rate of return in expanding networks of MPAs is as high as 24 per cent, and greater than the discount rate (3 per cent) in every scenario considered. In the most positive scenarios, the benefit-to-cost ratio of expanding MPAs is as high as 20:1, with net benefits over US$900 billion accruing over the period 2015-2050. Under all scenarios, the benefits are more than triple the costs. Increased protection of critical habitats could result in net benefits of between US$490 billion and US$920 billion accruing over the period 2015-2050. WWF recommends 30 per cent global coverage of MPAs by 2030 in order to secure the most complete benefits for people and the ocean.
Living Blue Planet Report 2015. The ocean generates economic benefits worth at least US$2.5 trillion per year. The total value of the ocean’s underpinning assets is at least US$24 trillion. Underpinning the value estimates are direct outputs (e.g. fishing), services enabled (e.g. tourism, education), trade and transportation (coastal and oceanic shipping) and adjacent benefits (e.g. carbon sequestration, biotechnology). More than two-thirds of this value relies on healthy ocean conditions. Increasing MPA coverage to 30 per cent of marine and coastal areas could generate between US$490 billion and US$920 billion by 2050 and 150,000-180,000 full-time jobs in MPA management over the 2015-2050 period.
Mainstreaming Sustainable Production and Consumption, by Jason Clay, SVP Markets, WWF-US
February 2007 Latin American workshop on WWF payment for environmental services experiences and projects
A Review of Innovative International Financial Mechanisms for Biodiversity Conservation with a Special Focus on the International Financing Of Developing Countries’ Protected Areas
Correcting markets to tackle global challenges: what principles should guide international subsidy rules? (2006)
Private Sector - NGO Forum to Promote Ecosystem Services and Payments for Ecosystem Services, 13-14 November 2006 in Vienna, Austria
Payments for Environmental Services: An equitable approach for reducing poverty and conserving nature, June 2006. Equitable PES has significant potential as a source of sustainable financing for conservation of biological diversity.
Changing the Political Economy of Poverty and Ecological Disruption, by David Reed, July 2006.
The Economics of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation (2004), by H. Cesar, L. Burke and L. Pet-Soede, WWF Netherlands.
Analyzing the Political Economy of Ecological Disruption, by David Reed, May 2004. Overview includes reference to the work of the "sustainable livelihoods" approach of the United Kingdom’s Department For International Development (DFID), the United Nations Development Programme's (UNDP) Poverty-Environment Initiative, and the World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers. Elements of the Analytical Approach: Analyzing Poverty-Environment Dynamics at the Local Level (Establishing a historical context, Establishing a quantified base line of socio-economic conditions, Deepening analysis of environmental problems, Analyzing the influence of a multitude of local institutions, Conducting qualitative analysis of social and economic dynamics, Interpreting the results of the local research). Analyzing the Influence Of Meso-Level Institutions (Institutional analysis, Identifying key actors). Establishing Linkages to Macro Policies and National Institutions (Macroeconomic policies, Sectoral policy reforms, Institutional structures and arrangements, Institutional reforms, Interpreting the impact of these macro-level policies and institutions). Interpreting the Results (Interpretive maps, Institutional charts, Policy matrices, Identification of principal obstacles to poverty reduction and sustainable resource management, Written presentation of the analytical work). Identifying Strategic Interventions (Identifying the potential actions to be taken, Matching intervention options with existing capacity, Choosing final intervention strategies)
The Economic Values of the World’s Wetlands, by Kirsten Schuyt, Gland/Amsterdam, January 2004. Using the same estimates of economic values from the 89 wetland case studies found in the literature, the total economic value of 63 million hectares of wetland around the world is estimated at $3.4 billion per year.
From good-will to payments for environmental services - A survey of financing alternatives for sustainable natural resource management, December 2003
Raising Revenues for Protected Areas: A Menu of Options (2001)
The Hundested Recommendations: from Roundtable & Workshop "Indigenous Peoples & Biodiversity Governance: Donor Best Practices Supporting Civil Society and Conservation": held in Hundested, Denmark, 7-9th March 2001, co-sponsored by the Biodiversity Support Program, Forest Peoples' Programme, International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs, The Alliance of Indigenous-Tribal Peoples of the Tropical Forests, and World Wide Fund for Nature-Denmark.
Ecosystem Services and Payments for Ecosystem Services: Why should businesses care?
Economic Valuation of Coral Reef Decline
Economic Values of the World’s Wetlands
Fuelling the Threat for Sustainable Fisheries in Europe
Mapping Conservation Investments: An Assessment of Biodiversity Funding in Latin America and the Caribbean

World Resources Institute (WRI)
Future of the Funds: Exploring the Architecture of Multilateral Climate Finance, by Niranjali Manel Amerasinghe, Joe Thwaites, Gaia Larsen and Athena Ballesteros, March 2017. Strengthening the architecture: improve coordination, harmonize fund requirements, fund programs, rather than one-off projects, and clarify specialization of funds.
The Business Case for Reducing Food Loss and Waste, A report on behalf of Champions 12.3. The average business can earn a $14 return for every $1 invested in food loss and waste reduction. 1.4 billion hectares of land produces food that is never eaten, and this number equates to 28 percent of the world’s agricultural area, which is larger than the land area of China and India. $218 billion is spent growing, processing, transporting, and disposing of food that is never eaten in the United States alone.
WRI, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank. World resources 2008: roots of resilience, growing the wealth of the poor. Washington, DC: World Bank. Properly designed enterprises can create economic, social, and environmental resilience that cushion the impacts of climate change, and help provide needed social stability. When the poor successfully scale up ecosystem-based enterprises, their resilience can increase in three dimensions: they can become more economically resilient, better able to face economic risks. They and their communities can become more socially resilient, better able to work together for mutual benefit. And the ecosystems they live in can become more biologically resilient, more productive and stable. WRI recognize that the concern for poverty extends to the serious problems of urban poverty as well.
WRI, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank. World Resources 2005: The Wealth of the Poor, Managing Ecosystems to Fight Poverty. Four steps to greater environmental income: more income through better ecosystem management; getting the governance right: empowering the poor to profit from nature; commercializing ecosystem goods and services; augmenting nature’s income stream: payment for environmental services.
WRI, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank. World Resources 2000-2001: People and ecosystems, The fraying web of life. Agricultural ecosystems or “agroecosystems” cover 28 percent of the land surface (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) and account for $1.3 trillion in output of food, feed, and fiber and for 99 percent of the calories humans consume. Coastal ecosystems (including marine fisheries) cover approximately 22 percent of the total land area in a 100-km band along continental and island coastlines, as well as the ocean area above the continental shelf. The coastal zone is home to roughly 2.2 billion people or 39 percent of the world’s population and yields as much as 95 percent of the marine fish catch. Forest ecosystems cover 22 percent of the land surface (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) and contribute more than 2 percent of global GDP through the production and manufacture of industrial wood products alone. Freshwater systems cover less than 1 percent of Earth’s surface but they are the source of water for drinking, domestic use, agriculture, and industry; freshwater fish and mollusks are also a major source of protein for humans and animals. Grassland ecosystems (including shrublands) cover 41 percent of the land surface (excluding Antarctica and Greenland) and are critical producers of protein and fiber from livestock, particularly in developing countries.
WRI, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank. World resources 1998-99 : a guide to the global environment - environmental change and human health. Washington, D.C. : The World Bank.
WRI Biodiversity Criteria for Evaluation

EarthWatch Institute

Banking on Biodiverrsity (2008)
The Handbook for Corporate Action: Biodiversity Resources, August 2002 edition
Business & Biodiversity: The Handbook for Corporate Action

Forest Trends
Ecosystem Marketplace: Ecosystem Markets: European Outlook. In 2015, Ecosystem Marketplace tracked European voluntary buyers purchasing 16.1 MtCO2e, typically from renewable energy and forestry projects. Nearly all of the voluntary carbon offsets bought by European buyers originated from projects outside of Europe. Projects located in Europe produced relatively few carbon offsets for the voluntary market. See: State of European Markets 2017 - Voluntary Carbon. A total of 40 programmes were identified: 34 active or in the pilot/demonstration phase, four inactive, and two not yet transacting. In 2015, these programmes facilitated an estimated €5.7B in payments for watershed protection to landowners and public land managers on 13.4 million (M) hectares of land in Europe. See: State of European Markets 2017 - Watershed Investments. See: State of European Markets 2017 - Biodiversity Offsets and Compensation

Supply Change: Tracking Corporate Commitments to Deforestation-free Supply Chains, March 2017. The report analyzes businesses' sustainability commitments related to the "big four" commodities linked to forest destruction: palm oil, soy, cattle and timber and pulp. commitments to reduce deforestation in cattle and soy supply chains remain dismally low in number, in large part due to their complexities and lack of well-established certification systems. A third of the 447 companies with commitments have at least one “dormant” pledge where the company has never reported any progress and the deadline date has either passed or was never set.

Why Invest in Ecosystem Services? A Business Brief from Forest Trends

Unlocking Potential: State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2017. Voluntary buyers in 2016 paid $191.3 million (M) to offset 63.4 million metric tonnes of CO2 (MtCO2e); Concerned citizens, corporations, and sub-national governments voluntarily purchased carbon offsets from projects that reduce emissions through forest protection, renewable energy, and other means; Demand for offsets did not meet supply, as transaction volumes on the voluntary markets shrank 24% from 2015 to 2016 and 56.2 MtCO2e were left unsold – some from previous years.

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2017: Buyers Analysis. Buyers were driven by concerns about climate change - how to reach greenhouse gas reduction targets, demonstrate climate leadership to their stakeholders, or directly pursue a climate-driven mission. For buyers deciding which offsets to buy, offsets with co-benefits were the big attraction, a factor more important than cost. Most buyers in 2016 continued to be from Europe and North America. European buyers put money on the table for offsets produced all over the world, and North American buyers preferred to buy offsets closer to home. Many buyers had purchased offsets before 2016: 70% of buyers were returning buyers, and they purchased over 90% of the offsets bought and sold in 2016.

State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2017: Regional Analysis. In Africa, project developers continue to value co-benefits as equal to their projects emissions reductions: 96% of all African offsets were associated with a co-benefit certification or standard. In Asia, suppliers were willing to sell more for less, resulting in the highest volume of offsets sold of any region. In Latin America, most project developers focus on saving the Amazon, resulting in the highest volume of forest and land-use offsets sold of any region. Europe saw relatively low demand, except for offsets from Turkey; however, progress was made at the policy level as some European governments expressed growing interest in creating domestic carbon markets. In North America, robust demand continues, strengthened by participation of California compliance buyers. In Oceania, high uncertainty around carbon markets and policies resulted in conservative voluntary market activity.


BBOP: Draft Global Inventory of Initiatives on the biodiversity mitigation hierarchy, Prepared by Marianne Darbi and members of the BBOP Secretariat (Kerry ten Kate, Amrei von Hase and Patrick Maguire), 18 August 2016.

Ecosystem Marketplace: State of Private Investment in Conservation 2016, A Landscape Assessment of an Emerging Market, December 2016. From 2004 until 2015, the private sector channeled $8.2 billion of private capital into investments that seek measurable environmental benefits – in addition to financial returns. Within this field of “conservation investing,” investors committed their dollars to one of the following conservation outcomes: sustainable food and fiber production, habitat conservation, and water quality and quantity protection. Some 32% of investors anticipate returns of 5% to 9%and 31% foresee returns of 15% or more.
Forest Trends: View from the Understory, State of Forest Carbon Finance 2016, October 2016. A record US$888 million was in new funding last year to forests and other carbon-absorbing landscapes, removing the equivalent of 87.9 million tonnes of CO2 (MtCO2e) from the atmosphere, roughly equal to the annual emissions of Chile.
Forest Trends: The Geography of REDD+ Finance Deforestation, Emissions, and the Targeting of Forest Conservation Finance. August 2016. REDDX tracked nearly $6 billion1 in total REDD+ finance commitments between 2009 and 2016, spanning ten different countries throughout Latin America, Africa, and Asia Pacific. Of this amount, $2.9 billion was allocated toward national–level REDD–readiness initiatives, while $3 billion was earmarked for subnational initiatives that target specific regions or provinces in individual countries. Overall, REDD+ finance appears to be more closely related to higher deforestation than to forest cover alone, suggesting that donors may be prioritizing REDD+ finance toward areas facing acute deforestation pressures, rather than equally targeting all areas with high forest cover.
Gaining Depth, State of Watershed Investment 2014. Some $12.3 billion went toward nature-based solutions to the global water crisis, with more than 365 million hectares worldwide for watershed protection and restoration in 2013.
GDI submission on innovative financial mechanisms
BBOP submission on innovative financial mechanisms
Making Environmental Markets Work: Lessons from Early Experience with Sulfur, Carbon, Wetlands, and Other Related Markets (2004)
The Katoomba’s Group. Its Ecosystem Marketplace seeks to become the world's leading source of information on markets and payment schemes for ecosystem services; services such as water quality, carbon sequestration and biodiversity.

The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
Beyond the Source: The Environmental, Economic and Community Benefits of Source Water Protection. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA. Source water protection activities could reduce the risk of regional extinctions, contribute 16 percent of the climate change mitigation needed, and protect 5 percent of the economic value of global agricultural production by safeguarding pollinator habitat. Water funds as a successful mechanism for downstream water users to fund upstream land conservation and restoration.
Atlas of Ocean Wealth, by Mark Spalding, Robert D. Brumbaugh and Emily Landis. The Nature Conservancy’s Mapping Ocean Wealth (MOW) initiative (research and innovative modeling) reveals that 70 million trips are supported by the world’s coral reefs each year, making these reefs a powerful engine for tourism. In total, coral reefs represent an astonishing $36 billion a year in economic value to the world. Of that $36 billion, $19 billion represents actual “on-reef” tourism like diving, snorkeling, glass-bottom boating and wildlife watching on reefs themselves. The other $16 billion comes from “reef-adjacent” tourism, which encompasses everything from enjoying beautiful views and beaches, to local seafood, paddleboarding and other activities that are afforded by the sheltering effect of adjacent reefs. there are more than 70 countries and territories across the world that have million dollar reefs — reefs that generate more than one million dollars per square kilometer.
Submission on innovative financial mechanisms: Part 1; Part 2; Part 3; Part 4; Part 5; Part 6; Part 7; Part 8; Part 9
Tools and Strategies for Financial Sustainability: How Managers Are Building Secure Futures for Their MPAs

Conservation International
Impending extinction crisis of the world’s primates: Why primates matter, by Alejandro Estrada. Science Advances, 18 Jan 2017: Vol. 3, no. 1, e1600946, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600946. Current information shows the existence of 504 species in 79 genera distributed in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Asia. Alarmingly, ~60% of primate species are now threatened with extinction and ~75% have declining populations.
Progress Report towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, National commitments fall short of action needed to safeguard nature

Groups on new and innovative financing
Innovative Financing 2012: practices and players (Air ticket levy, IFFIm, Advanced Market Commitments (AMC), Agriculture Pull Mechanisms, Debt2Health, Matching Funds, Carbon Markets, Tax on airline CO2 emissions, (Product) Red initiative)
Go to the website or International Finance Facility (IFF)
Declaration on innovative sources of financing for development (September 2005): a joint statement from the “quadripartite” group on innovative mechanisms for financing development (Brazil, Spain, France, Chile, Germany, and Algeria).
Declaration on innovative sources of financing for development (September 14 2005)
The Landau Report, December 2004, boxes 1-10, boxes 11-12, and contributions by members of the group
Report of the Technical Group on Innovative Financial Mechanisms by Brazil, Chile, France and Spain for the Summit Conference on Action against Hunger and Poverty, New York, 20 September 2004
Report of the Technical Group on Innovative Financing Mechanisms - Action against Hunger and Poverty (2004): Taxation of Financial Transactions, Taxation of the Arms Trade, International Financial Facility, SDRs for Financing Development, Tax Evasion and Tax Havens, Increasing Remittance´s Benefits, Voluntary Contributions through Credit Cards, Socially Responsible Investing or “Ethical Funds”
GAVI Matching Fund
French, German and Belgian Development Ministers sign an article on the European FTT
2+3=8 Innovating in Financing Education - Report of the Writing Committee to the Task Force on Innovative Financing for Education
Innovative financing for Education: Moving Forward (Education Venture Fund, Debt Conversion Development Bonds, Diaspora Bonds, Travelers Savings Fund for Development, Public Private partnerships, Private fundraising exercises, Micro donations from individuals)
Diaspora Bonds for E­ducation
Report of the High-Level Expert Committee to the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Agriculture, Food Security and Nutrition (Taxes, Voluntary contributions, Call to the financial market, Migrants’ remittances and diaspora investment in agriculture, Loan guarantees for bank agricultural lending, Social Stock Exchange, Public warehousing system, Collateral management, Public-private partnerships for rural infrastructure, Structured demand, Risk management tools, Awards)
Recommendations from the task force on innovative financing for health (International Solidarity Levy on Airline tickets, IFFIm, the AMC and Debt2Health)
Peer review of existing innovative financing for development
Leading Group: Innovative financing for agriculture, food security and nutrition, report of the high-level expert Committee to the Leading Group on Innovative Financing for agriculture, food security and nutrition, International Expert Report, December 2012. Risk management tools and innovating credit mechanisms; Proposal for the scaling up of innovative 􀂿nancial tools in value chains; Public-private partnerships; Subsidy scheme for inputs for small scale producers; Mechanisms for catalyzing private investment in innovation systems (AMC and pull mechanisms); Migrants’remittances

International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM)

Biodiversity Offsets – A Briefing Paper for the Mining Industry (2005)
Good Practice Guidance for Mining and Biodiversity

World Economic Forum (WEF)
The Global Risks Report 2017, 12th Edition, World Economic Forum. Climate change ranks alongside income inequality and societal polarization as a top trend for 2017, with all five environmental risks (extreme weather, major natural disasters, failure of climate change mitigation and adaptation, mad-made environmental disasters, biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse) featuring for the first time among the most likely and most impactful risks before the world.

Overseas Development Institute (ODI)
The 2014 CAPE conference: The role of finance in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals Conference report, December 2014
The growing role of regional organisations in humanitarian action (2013)
Understanding climate change finance flows and effectiveness – mapping of recent initiatives (2013)
At cross-purposes: subsidies and climate compatible investment (2013)
Mapping support to social enterprises in emerging markets (2013)
Coding and tracking adaptation finance: lessons and opportunities for monitoring adaptation finance across international and national scales (2012)
Leveraging private investment: the role of public sector climate finance (2011)
Government institutions, public expenditure and the role of development partners: meeting the new environmental challenges of the developing world (2008)
Environmental funding: How to increase the effectiveness of public expenditure in developing countries
The business side of sustainable forest management: Small and medium forest enterprise development for poverty reduction (2006)
Fossil fuel subsidies and climate
Climate Finance Thematic Briefing: REDD+ Finance
Climate Finance Thematic Briefing: Mitigation Finance
Climate Finance Thematic Briefing: Adaptation Finance
The Green Climate Fund
Mobilising International Climate Finance: Lessons from the Fast-Start Finance Period
Defining climate-related forest activities, finance and expenditure in national budgetary systems
Scaling Up: How Germany, Japan, Norway, UK, and US Approached Fast-Start Climate Finance
Forest Certification: The Debate About Standards (1998)

Credit Suisse
Conservation Finance – Where Wall Street Meets Nature, by Fabian Huwyler, Sustainability Affairs, Credit Suisse. Some leading investment advisors have identified growing interest in sustainable and organic agriculture, in sustainable forestry and land management, and in water investment opportunities with conservation benefits. Such investments provide a good, stable, current yield that is equal to or higher than what can currently be achieved in the fixed income markets. And investors have the benefit of the potential upside they could accrue similar to a private investment.
Conservation Finance From Niche to Mainstream: The Building of an Institutional Asset Class

Business for Social Responsibility (BSR)
The Benefit Multiplier of Investing in Nature, Solving Business Problems and Realizing Multiple Returns through Working with Ecological Systems, BSR, May 2016. Additional cases
Global Public Sector Trends in Ecosystem Services 2009-2014, January 2015 Update.
Private Sector Engagement with Ecosystem Services, January 2015 Update. Activity Area 1: Setting Corporate Policies, Standards, and/or Targets; Activity Area 2: Assessing Monetary Values of Natural Capital; Activity Area 3: Exploring and Embedding Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services into Corporate Management Systems
Global Public Sector Trends in Ecosystem Services, 2009-2012 2006
Environmental Markets: Opportunities and Risks for Business (2006)

RedLAC and Conservation Finance Alliance

Foundation Center: Funding the Ocean. The ocean covers 71% of the Earth's surface, but has received less than 1% of all philanthropic funding since 2009.

Private Capital for Working Lands Conservation: A Market Development Framework. Leigh Whelpton, and Andrea Ferri. The Market Formation & Definition Phase: Carbon Markets in the United States; The Creation of the Avoided Conversion of Grasslands and Shrublands Protocol; The Creation of the Grassland Project Protocol. The Pilot Phase: The Environmental Defense Fund Pilot; The Climate Trust Pilot. The Early Market Phase: The Case of the Working Lands Investment Fund; The Case of Climate Trust Capital. The Mature Phase: Innovation within Mature Markets; The Rise of Differentiated Approaches to Timberland Investing; The Case of Ecotrust Forest Management; The Rise of Differentiated Approaches to Farmland Investing; The Case of Farmland LP.

Environmental Funds as a Mechanism for Conservation and Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean
Donor’s Expectations of Environmental Funds
Conservation Finance Alliance

Convention on Biological Diversity
Decision XIII/21 - The financial mechanism
Report of the Dialogue Workshop on Assessment of Collective Action of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities in Biodiversity Conservation and Resource Mobilization, also in Spanish
Decision XII/3: Resource mobilization
Executive Summary: High Level Panel on Global Assessment of Resources for Implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 (UNEP/CBD/COP/12/13/ADD2)
High Level Panel on Global Assessment of Resources (full report) for Implementing the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 (UNEP/CBD/COP/12/INF/4)
Early Experience of Considering Finance in the Revised/Updated National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans
Notes on Economic Values of Biodiversity
The Value of Forest Ecosystems
National Experience and Perspectives in Innovative Financial Mechanisms. This digest provides a compilation of the submissions from Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, European Union, India, Japan, Mexico, Moldova, Norway, and Russian Federation with respect to innovative financial mechanism in 2012 in preparation of the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
COP-12 Events on Financial Resources: Outcomes of Quito Dialogue II, by Francis Ogwal, Uganda & Maria Schultz, SwedBio/Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; Findings and Recommendations, by Carlos M. Rodriguez, Chair of the High Level Panel; Summary of the Regional Research, by Matt Rayment, ICF International, Consultant supporting High Level Panel; Documenting successful mainstreaming cases and approaches to deliver the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, by Sonia Peña Moreno, Maximilian Mueller, Carolina Hazin; From Dehradun to Pyeongchang via Chennai: Guidance for the integration of biodiversity and poverty eradication, by Hem Pande and Didier Babin; Earthmind: Corporate Biodiversity Finance: Financing no net loss & positive impacts, by Dr Francis Vorhies, Earthmind; Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI): "Aichi Target 3 on Positive Incentives: Can Market-Based Instruments Make a Difference?" - Summary; The influence of payments for ecosystem services on behaviours and motivations in Cambodia; Clarifying terminology issues with biodiversity financing instruments: markets versus payments?; INVALUABLE: a highly policy-relevant project; Integrating relevant knowledge into payment schemes for conservation? Science Policy Interface approaches; Design of payment schemes for conservation and the role of intermediaries in Indonesia; Rainforest Alliance: Mainstreaming biodiversity in the production sectors, by Jeffrey Milder, Rainforest Alliance; International Development Law Organization (IDLO): Building Legal Preparedness for Biodiversity Targets: why law matters for success, by Fabiano de Andrade Correa, IDLO
Dialogue seminar on scaling up finance for Biodiversity, 6-9 March 2012, Quito, Ecuador (Meeting Report: English and Spanish)
Strategy for Resource Mobilization: Methodological and Implementation Guidance for the “Indicators for Monitoring the Implementation of the Convention’s Strategy for Resource Mobilization”
Global Dialogue on Scaling up financing for biodiversity, Quito, Ecuador, 6 to 9 March 2012: The Results (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/4/INF/9)
Decision XI/4: Review of implementation of the strategy for resource mobilization, including the establishment of targets
Methodological and implementation guidance for the indicators for monitoring the implementation of the Convention's Strategy for Resource Mobilization (UNEP/CBD/WG RI/4/6/Add.1)
Assessing the adopted indicators for the implementation of the Strategy for Resource Mobilization of the Convention on Biological Diversity – A scoping study (UNEP/CBD/WGRI/4/INF/8)
Indicators for Monitoring the Implementation of the Strategy for Resource Mobilization: Methodological Guidance and Implementation Guidelines
Collection of submissions on innovative financial mechanisms, September 2011
Informal Expert E-consultation on Innovative Financial Mechanisms, 25-29 July 2011: 1. Submission from European Union; 2. Submission from Canada; 3. Bamako Declaration; 4. United Nations General Assembly resolution 65/146 "Innovative Mechanisms of Financing for Development"; 5. Harmony with Nature Report of the Secretary-General - A/65/314; 6. Report of the Budapest Workshop on Innovative Financial Mechanisms (22-23 March, 2011)
Informal Expert Consultation on Resourcing Indicators, 20 June -1 July 2011
Policy Options Concerning Innovative Financial Mechanisms (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/3/8, 15 February 2010)
Innovative Financial Mechanisms: Report of the proceedings of the International Workshop on Innovative Financial Mechanisms (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/3/INF/5, 6 May 2010) (en) (workshop website)
Regional Workshop on Biodiversity and Finance in Support of the Nagoya Outcome, Cairo, Egypt, 29 - 30 November 2010
Resource Mobilization Strategy in Support of the Achievement of the Convention’s Three Objectives (UNEP/CBD/COP/10/13, 24 August 2010)
Decision X/3: Concrete activities and initiatives including measurable targets/indicators to achieve the strategic goals contained in the strategy for resource mobilization
Training and Information Events on Innovative Financing for WGRI-3 Participants, Nairobi, 24-27 May 2010: A Green Development Mechanism and International Innovative Financing - presentation by Francis Vorhies; Payment for Ecosystem Services and Climate Change Funding - presentation by Katia Karousakis; Economic Valuation of Land - supporting evidence-based decision making by Simone Quatrini
International Workshop on Innovative Financial Mechanisms, Bonn, 27-29 January 2010: Provisional Agenda; Proposed Organization of Work; Issue Document; Information Note for Participants; Report of the Workshop; Rewarding benefits through payments and markets; Reforming subsidies; Addressing losses through regulation and pricing; Making REDD+ Real; GDM report Executive Summary, Full report (Exploring the case for a GDM); China's ecological compensation system (Professor Fang Zhulan)
Report of the Expert Meeting on Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Development Cooperation, Montreal, 13-15 May 2009
Notes on Progress in Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Development Cooperation & Key Considerations for Moving Forward (UNEP/CBD/EM-BD&DC/1/INF/1, 6 May 2009)
Decision IX/11 containing the strategy for resource mobilization in support of the achievement of the three objectives of the Convention
Third and final informal consultation on the development of a strategy for resource mobilization (Rome, Italy, February 2008): Draft strategy; Draft message; Elements; GEF Submission
Second informal consultation on the development of a strategy for resource mobilization (Geneva, Switzerland, 20 January 2008): Annotations to the provisional agenda; Draft Strategy; Compilation of Submissions; Background Note; Draft of a Message; Preliminary revised version
Financial Resources and the Financial Mechanism - In-depth review of the availability of financial resources (UNEP/CBD/COP/9/16, 26 February 2008)
Financial Resources and the Financial Mechanism - Revised draft strategy for resource mobilization in support of the achievement of the Convention’s objectives (UNEP/CBD/COP/9/16/Add.1/Rev.1, 24 April 2008)
Review of Implementation of Articles 20 and 21 - Draft message on biological diversity and finance to the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus (UNEP/CBD/COP/9/16/Add.2, 26 April 2008)
Message on biological diversity and finance to the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus (30 May 2008)
Characteristics of innovative financial mechanisms
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Management of Environmental Funds for the Financial Sustainability of Biodiversity Conservation (Lima, 9-11 May 2007)
MEA Bulletin guest article on tapping the potential of environmental funds (5 July 2007).
Event on Tapping the Potential of Environmental Funds (Paris, 10 July 2007): featuring presentations from SCBD, UNDP, RedLAC, and Birdlife International
Expert Group Meeting on Management of Environmental Funds for the Financial Sustainability of Biodiversity Conservation (Lima, 9-11 May 2007): Report of the Expert Group Meeting. Bolivia FUNDESNAP (presentation); Bolivia PUMA funding sources for environmental funds (presentation); Bolivia PUMA on funding sources; Brazil environmental funds (presentation); Colombia environmental action fund; Colombia environmental action fund (presentation); Conceptual framework for environmental funds; Conceptual framework for environmental funds (presentation); Ecuador FAN (presentation); Environmental Foundation of Jamaica (presentation); GEF experience (presentation); Global trend on environmental funds (presentation); Inernational cooperation and environmental funds Ecuador; Management of investment portfolio; Mexico - FMCN (presentation); Panama Natura on resource allocation (presentation); Peru on project finance (presentation) ; Private Sector and Brazilian environmental funds (presentation) ; Private sector and Profonanpe of Peru (presentation) ; RedLAC experience (presentation) ; Suriname Conservation Foundation; Suriname Foundation ; Suriname Foundation (presentation) ; USAID on environmental funds (presentation)
First informal consultation on the development of a strategy for resource mobilization (Montreal, Canada, October 2007), (background note)
Recommendation 2/2 on the development of a strategy for resource mobilization by the Ad Hoc Open-ended Working Group on Review of Implementation of the Convention (July 2007)
Report on the availability of financial resources (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/2/INF/4, 28 June 2007), (document)
Report on options for resource mobilization, including innovative financial mechanisms, and a draft strategy for resource mobilization in support of the achievement of the objectives of the Convention (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/2/4, 16 May 2007), (document)
Submissions on resource mobilization from Argentina, Australia, Canada, Germany and the European Commission on behalf of the European Community and its member States, Honduras, Mexico, Myanmar, Switzerland, as well as Greenpeace International and RSPB (the BirdLife Partner in the UK) (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/2/INF/8, 16 April 2007)
Banking for Biodiversity(October 2007): This special issue of Business and Biodiversity was prepared for the UNEP FI 2007 Global Roundtable.
Aid Flows Targeting CBD Objectives, Paris, 10 July 2007: Statistics on biodiversity-related aid; Remarks by the CBD Secretariat
Tapping the Potential of Environmental Funds, Paris, 10 July 2007: SCBD; UNDP; RedLAC; and Birdlife International
Developing International Payments for Ecosystem Services (IPES): Avoided Deforestation, Paris, 11 July 2007: CIRAD - Is “avoided deforestation” scheme workable as an International PES?; UNEP - Seeing REDD: The Opportunity for a Climate-Conservation Double Dividend Through Avoided Deforestation; Remarks by the CBD Secretariat
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Management of Environmental Funds for the Financial Sustainability of Biodiversity Conservation
Decision VIII/13, paragraph 4, requested for a strategy for resource mobilization, based on the Report on the status, gaps and options concerning financial support to biodiversity (UNEP/CBD/COP/8/21, 19 January 2006);
Follow-up to the Recommendations of the Working Group on the Review of Implementation of the Convention (UNEP/CBD/COP/8/20, 17 January 2006)
Review of Financial Resources and the Financial Mechanism (UNEP/CBD/WG-RI/1/5, 19 July 2005)
CBD Catalogue of Funding Sources (2006): a useful information tool as an entry point for the exciting journey of financial and technical cooperation in support of accomplishing the challenging international biodiversity agenda.
2005 Review of Financial Resources and the Financial Mechanism
Donor meeting on protected areas, Montecatini, Italy, 18 June 2005: Options for Mobilizing Financial Resources for the Implementation of the Programme of Work By Developing Countries and Countries With Economies in Transition
Donor Guide to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Word version, December 2004 (230 pages)
Decision VII/21: Additional financial resources, based on the Report on additional financial resources (UNEP/CBD/COP/7/18, 10 November 2003)
Workshop on Financing for the Implementation of Article 8(j) and Related Provisions, Montreal, Canada, 4 Feb. 2002: Summary of the Chair in (Word and PDF); presentations by Arthur Nogueira (SCBD) ; Mario Ramos (GEF SEC); Juan Martínez (World Bank); Kirstin Elliot (UNEP); John Hough (UNDP)
“CBD News” Supplement on financing , March 2002: Word and Editorial (SCBD); Word and AECI (Spain); Word and Austrian development cooperation; Word and DGIC (Belgium); Word and GTZ (Germany); Word and Sida (Sweden); Word and UNDP; Word and World Bank
Financing Sustainable Tourism Conference: Web conference, August and September 2002: Word and Summary Report; Word and Detailed Report
Conservation Finance Retreat, Harbouretowne, Maryland, USA, 12-13 February 2002: Word and Summary of the Retreat; World Bank; WWF; WCS; TNC; RedLAC; Ramsar; KfW; IUCN; IIED; IFC; IADB; GTZ; GEF; Forest Trends; FLOWS; CBD
Exploratory Workshop on a Global Initiative on Banking, Business and Biodiversity, Beijing, 18 October 2002: Word and Summary Report; Introduction; Guidance under the CBD; Summary of national information; Relevant initiatives/processes
CBD News Supplement on Financing for Biological Diversity (March 2002): presents feature articles from Download the PDF version or AECI (Spain) (word and pdf), Austrian development cooperation (word and pdf), DGIC (Belgium) (word and pdf), GTZ (Germany) (word and pdf), Sida (Sweden) (word and pdf), UNDP (word and pdf), World Bank (word and pdf)
An Introduction to Funding Guidance of the Convention on Biological Diversity, word version, December 2002 (130 pages)
Decision VI/16: Additional financial resources, based on the Report on additional financial resources (UNEP/CBD/COP/6/14, 16 October 2001)
Workshop to Establish the European Biodiversity Resource Initiative, Geneva, Switzerland, 4 December 2001: See SCBD Statement (word and pdf)
Workshop on Financing for Biodiversity (Co-organized with GEF), Havana, Cuba, 16 - 17 July 2001: Joint summary of the co-chairs of the workshop on Financing for Biological Diversity; Advice on developing a format for standardized information on financial support - Format for Reporting Financial Support to Biodiversity; Sharing knowledge and experience among institutions: Compilation of information regarding financial resources contained in the first national reports to the Convention on Biological Diversity
GEF/UNEP Information Sharing and Data Exchange Workshop, Paris, 15-16 March 2001: Summary Outcome of the GEF/UNEP Information Sharing and Data Exchange Workshop
Compilation of information regarding financial resources contained in the first national reports to the Convention on Biological Diversity
Decision V/11: Additional financial resources, based on the Report on additional financial resources (UNEP/CBD/COP/5/14, 15 November 1999)
Decision IV/12: Additional financial resources, based on the Report on additional financial resources (UNEP/CBD/COP/4/17, 2 February 1998)
Report on Financial Innovations for Biodiversity: A workshop at the 10th Global Biodiversity Forum, Bratislava, Slovakia, 1-3 May 1998
Decision III/6: Additional financial resources, based on the Report on availability of additional financial resources (UNEP/CBD/COP/3/37, 6 October 1996)
Report on characteristics specific to biological diversity and suggestions to funding institutions on how to make their activities more supportive of the Convention - a preliminary consideration (UNEP/CBD/COP/3/7, 22 September 1996)

Decision II/6: Financial resources and mechanism, based on the Study on the availability of additional financial resources (UNEP/CBD/COP/2/10, 15 September 1995)
1994 Study on methodologies for estimating funding needs
Green Fiscal Policy Network

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme