National financing: Asia-Pacific

trade, technology, governance and sustainable consumption
Decree on the prohibition of forest harvesting, Decree on the prohibition of hunting, draft Water Law, draft Protected Area Regulations, draft Fauna Conservation and Hunting Regulation, draft Rangeland Law, draft Forest Law, other draft legislation, draft Land Policy
$5,000 per annum (2007)
Taxation and revenue sharing
National Emergency Fund

The Future Generations Reserve Fund
Spending 2006

Building Inclusive Green Economies: Highlights from the UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative in Asia Pacific. The Government is currently spending $1bn a year, equivalent to 6 - 7% of its annual budget, on climate change adaptation activities. Every year, the increasing incidence of droughts, floods, cyclones and climate-linked disasters is affecting the health and livelihoods of people and damaging public infrastructure thus leading to mounting costs for the Government.
Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review: A methodology to review climate policy, institutions and expenditure
Country-driven approaches to climate finance: insights from Bangladesh
NBSAP2010, Bangladesh submission on funding needs
Millennium Development Goals Needs Assessment & Costing 2009-2015: Bangladesh (2009)
Bangladesh submission on funding needs
Greening Banks: Highlights of 2012 International Green Credit Forum - Bangladesh
Estimating green jobs in Bangladesh (2010)
Skills for Green Jobs in Bangladesh (2009)
Forest Policy 1994, National Land Use Policy 2001, National Fisheries Policy 1998, National Water Policy 1999, Coastal Zone Policy 2005, Livestock Development Policy 1992, National Seed Policies
Arannyak Foundation, Multi-Donor Trust Fund for Climate Change (MDTF), Bangladesh Climate Resilient Fund, Palli Karma Sahayak Foundation (PKSF), Tropical Forest Conservation Fund.
Bangladesh Freedom Foundation, Human Development Foundation, Dutch Bangla Bank Foundation
South-South Cooperation
Swaps with USA

Building Inclusive Green Economies: Highlights from the UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative in Asia Pacific. 90 % population dependent on agriculture and forestry. 72.5% of the country is covered by forests. They provide the rural poor with fodder, fuel wood and building materials. The Constitution mandates that a minimum of 60% of the country remains under forest. 51.4% of the country is designated as ‘Protected Areas’. The emissions of Bhutan represent 1/3 of the sequestration capacity of its forests. A “green tax” on private vehicles ranging from 5% -20% of their value has been established to disincentivize private transportation. Bhutan aims to be the first wholly organic nation of the world within a decade. Political parties are united to eradicate chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Over 40 % of national revenues come from hydropower. Bhutan’s potential hydropower output is estimated at 30,000 megawatts (MW), only about 5% of which has been developed. Insurance scheme established to compensate victims of human-wildlife conflicts. Victims of human-wildlife conflict receive monetary compensation and pay member fee
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation - protected areas
NBSAP1997, 2002, 2009
Report 2006
Public Environmental Expenditure Review: 10th Five Year Plan 2008/9 and 2009/10
Report on Public Environment Expenditure Analysis of the Royal Government of Bhutan for the 9th FYP Period, 2009
agricultural policy, energy policy, industrial policy, surface transport policy, Forest Act of Bhutan 1969, Forest and Nature Conservation Act 1995, Environmental Assessment Act 2000, Livestock Act of Bhutan 2000, Biodiversity Act 2003, Mines & Minerals Act 1995; National Environment Commission, the Department of Forest, Department of Agriculture, the Department of Livestock, other line agencies and organizations, the National Biodiversity Center, Natural Resources Development Corporation Limited, Druk Seed Corporation, Royal Society for the Protection of Nature, Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Sustainable Development Secretariat
Estimating the Value of Ecosystem Services in Bhutan
Programme for South-South Cooperation between Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Bhutan Trust Fund for Environmental Conservation, Wildlife Endowment Fund, *BTF

Brunei Darussalam
Investment Agency
Ninth National Development Plan (9th NDP) (2007-2012), National Forestry Policy (1989), National Physical Plan

WWF: Mapping and Valuing Ecosystem Services in Mondulkiri: Outcomes and Recommendations for Sustainable and Inclusive Land Use Planning in Cambodia, by Karina Watkins et al. WWF Cambodia. Phnom. A low deforestation or Conservation Scenario (CN). This scenario places a high value on the conservation of significant natural resources, while development activities are allowed mostly in areas outside of these designated plots. In addition, sizeable financial incentives are assumed to be earmarked for conservation of significant resources located within or adjacent to development areas. A moderate deforestation or green economy (GE) scenario. This scenario recognizes the value of natural capital, reflected in local actions. There is increased protection of areas with high biodiversity, carbon stocks, and watersheds. This scenario assumes that there is be improved governance, adherence to spatial plans and implementation of sustainable finance mechanisms. A high deforestation or business as usual (BAU) scenario. This places importance on economic development activities. It also refers to the continuation of the current plans, e.g. road development plans, rubber plantations etc. in spite of existing conflicts and challenges. This scenario assumes development follows its current trajectory, with weak governance and limited financial incentives for sustainable development.
Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Paying local people to protect crane nests and Paying not to convert wetlands into flooded rice paddies
The influence of payments for ecosystem services on behaviours and motivations in Cambodia, by Colas Chervier, CIRAD
Climate Public Expenditure and Institutional Review
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. In Cambodia, the Fisheries Department undertook research showing that the sector contributed 10 percent of gross domestic product—a very high figure. This evidence was instrumental in persuading the Ministry of Finance to prioritize the fisheries sector in budget allocations and in dialogues with overseas donors. The fisheries sector contributes more than 10 percent of GDP in Cambodia.
What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)
National Trust Fund for Environment
Correcting perverse incentives for unsustainable logging and raising royalties on forest exploitation
environment sector, forest sector, fisheries sector, agriculture sector, water resources sector, energy sector and mining, tourism sector, environmental education, financial sector
Veun Sean Village, Stung Treng Ramsar Site, Cambodia: Rapid, participatory assessment for wetland valuation
Ream National Park, Cambodia: balancing the local opportunity costs of wetland protection
In 2003, the percentage of budget allocation for central Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries were approximately 0.27% and 1.06% of the total national budget allocated for expenditures at the central level respectively. At the provincial level, however the budget allocation for line departments of each of the two ministries above represents 25.3 and 41.15 % of the global budget allocated for each of the two ministries respectively. This figure has been increased in 2005 and 2006.
Swap Opportunities

Environmental Risk Management Initiative for China’s Overseas Investment, Green Finance Committee (GFC) of China Society for Finance and Banking, etc. 5 September 2017.

NDRC: China’s Ecological compensation policy, Mr. Liu Tong, presentation at the Visit to the CBD Secretariat, 31 July 2017. China aims to cover major ecosystems through its well developed ecocompensation program by 2020, and annual fund for eco-compensation from the central government amounts to RMB 150 billion, including RMB 15 billion/year for forests since 2001 (Forest Ecosystem Benefit Compensation Fund, and Conversion of Cropland to Forests Program); RMB 70 billion/year for major ecological functional zones since 2008 (Transfer Payments for National Major Ecological Functional Zones from the Central Government to Local Governments); RMB 18 billion/year for grasslands since 2011 (The Conversion of Rangeland to Grasslands Program, and The Reward-Compensation Mechanism for ecological conservation in pastoral regions); RMB 1 billion/year for wetlands since 2010; RMB 8.4 billion/year for watersheds since 2001; RMB 3.8 billion/year for oceans since 2010, as well as eco-compensations for desert, restrictive development regions, prohibited development regions and etc.

UNDP: China-UNDP South-South and Global Partnership 2016 Highlights. USD $3.1 Bn South-South Cooperation Climate Fund. USD $14.41 billion total of Chinese development cooperation according to the 2ndWhite Paper on China’s Foreign Aid. Grants, interest-free loans and concessional loans are the three forms of aid. In addition there are also projects, exchange of goods, technical transfer, capacity development, volunteer programs. USD $170.11 billion, an increase of 44.1% YOY by MOFCOM’s data,is the total non-financial outbound direct investment from China in 2016. 7,961 overseas ventures across 164 countries and region have Chinese enterprises investment footprint last year. 4.7%is the level of GDP in sub-Saharan Africa that will be increased by China’s transition.
Strengthening protected areas for biodiversity and ecosystem services in China, by Weihua Xu et al, PNAS, vol. 114 no. 7, February 14, 2017. The first nationwide assessment shows that protected areas (PAs) are not well delineated to protect either biodiversity or key ecosystem services, and proposes creating a national park system in China to help guide development along a path of green growth, improving the well-being of both people and nature. This involves establishing new, strictly protected PAs for biodiversity and ecosystem services that are highly sensitive to human impacts, as well as a new PA category—in China and ideally worldwide—for integrating biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human activities to achieve sustainable development goals. China’s nature reserves serve moderately well for mammals and birds, but not for other major taxa, nor for these key regulating ecosystem services. China’s nature reserves encompass 15.1% of the country’s land surface. They capture 17.9% and 16.4% of the entire habitat area for threatened mammals and birds, but only 13.1% for plants, 10.0% for amphibians, and 8.5% for reptiles. Nature reserves encompass only 10.2–12.5% of the source areas for the four key regulating services.
Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa's climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals, by Dumisani Chirambo, Advances in Climate Change Research 7 (2016) 253e263
Funding needs for each strategic goal
Financing in NBSAP1994, 2010
Biodiversity and Climate Change
Governance of Biodiversity Conservation: historical trend, legal and institutional framework
China submission on resource mobilization indicators
Grain for Green; Four Wastelands Auction Policy
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Pippa Horticulture Company Ltd – access rights, Shares in National Scenic Reserves/ Forest Parks, Protected wetland for endangered cranes; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Jade Peak Gorge - private park & access permits; Case studies for bundled environmental services: National Ecological Benefits Compensation Fund - payments for environmental services; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Watershed protection contracts, Miyun Reservoir restoration and maintenance scheme, Xingguo County - watershed protection contracts, Mini-watershed restoration schemes, Yao County watershed protection contracts
Policy of non-gratuitous use of scenic spots resources, fund for compensation of forest ecological benefits, Regulation on Restoration of Forests from Farmlands, tax preferences for the operating income gained from the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
A Pilot Study on Payment for Ecological and Environmental Services in Lashihai Nature Reserve, China
China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program: Institutional Innovation or Business as Usual?
UNEP: Green Finance Task Force Report; Green Finance Task Force Summary; Theoretical Framework of Green Finance; International Experience of Green Finance. 1: Create a green banking system; 2: Develop green funds; 3: Green the development banks; 4: Strengthen discounted green loans; 5: Promote the issuance of green bonds; 6: Create a green IPO channel; 7: Promote development of emissions trading markets; 8: Establish a green rating system; 9: Create a green stock index; 10: Environmental cost analysis; 11: Create green investor networks; 12: Create a compulsory green insurance system; 13: Establish the legal liability of financial institutions; 14: Make environmental information disclosure mandatory
ADB: Toward a national eco-compensation regulation in the People’s Republic of China. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2016. Central government ministries have been piloting eco-compensation projects since 2000, primarily focusing on grasslands, forests, and watersheds. Within 5 years after the central government began piloting eco-compensation, provincial, municipal, autonomous region, city, and county governments began to launch their own eco-compensation initiatives, primarily focused on watersheds, wetlands, marine areas, and mining areas. Existing national eco-compensation schemes can be divided into three broad categories: (i) ecological protection projects, (ii) ecological damage restoration projects, and (iii) ecological grants and subsidies.
Apple inc. (11 May 2015): announced an expansion of its renewable energy and environmental protection initiatives, including a new multi-year project with World Wildlife Fund to protect as much as 1 million acres of responsibly managed working forests which provide fiber for pulp, paper and wood products in China.
China 2012, Spending 2014
Fifth national report. Subsidies were given to those farmers who have returned their cultivated land to forests according to verified areas (By the end of 2012, cumulatively 324.7 billion yuan RMB, benefiting 120 million farmers each household 7,000 yuan RMB. Since 1999, the central government has been subsidizing those households that have returned their cultivated land to forests according to the actual areas returned and verified. These households also have the ownership of forests that grow on returned land, with contract period for owning and using returned land being as long as 70 years, while enjoying preferential tax incentives for benefits from use of returned land. In 2007, the State Council issued a notice on improving the policy of returning cultivated land to forests, with a view to increase the subsidies to related households. According to this notice, households living in the Yangtse River Basin and South China can be subsidized in cash by 1,575 yuan RMB per hectare of land annually, while households living in the Yellow River Basin and North China can get a cash subsidy of 1,050 yuan RMB per hectare of land. Farmers that return land to forests with ecological functions can be compensated for eight years, while those that return land to forests with economic functions can be compensated for five years. From 2008 to 2011, the central government provided specialized grants totaling 46.2 billion yuan RMB. By the end of 2012, the central government has invested cumulatively 324.7 billion yuan RMB, and 124 million farmers in 2,279 counties directly benefited from this investment, with per household being subsidized 7,000 yuan RMB on the average.
Subsidizing the projects on natural forest protection. Natural forest protection project: 118.6 billion yuan RMB in the first phase, and 244 billion yuan RMB in the second phase from 2011 to 2020. Natural forest resources protection projects were initiated in 17 provinces in 2000. The central government subsidized forest management and conservation as well as seedling cultivation and reforestation. The central government also provided subsidies by covering pension insurances for forest enterprise employees and social expenditures of forest enterprises, and providing basic life guarantees for laid-off forest workers. The total investment for the first phase of this project went up to 118.6 billion yuan RMB. At the end of 2010, the State Council decided to implement a second phase of this project from 2011 to 2020, with 11 more counties (cities, districts) to be included in the project. The subsidy provided for reforestation will be 4,500 yuan per hectare, and those for enclosing mountains for forest conservation and aerial seeding will be 1,050 yuan RMB per hectare and 1,800 yuan RMB per hectare respectively. Education subsidy is 30,000 yuan RMB per person per year. Sanitation subsidy for forest areas in the upper reaches of the Yangtse River, the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River and Inner Mongolia is 15,000 yuan RMB per year and 10,000 yuan RMB per year respectively. For state-owned forests, the central government provides 75 yuan per hectare annually as forest conservation fee. For those collectively-owned forests that also belong to national-level pubic benefits forests, during 2011-2012, the central government provided 150 yuan RMB per hectare annually as part of the funds for ecological compensation. Since 2013, this rate has been increased to 225 yuan RMB per year. For local benefits forests the compensation funds are provided mainly from local government budgets, while the central government also provides 45 yuan RMB per hectare per year as forest conservation fee. The total investment of the second phase of this project will be around 224 billion yuan RMB.
Subsidizing projects of returning grazing land to grasslands. Subsidies to those herdsmen who have returned their grazing land to grassland to cover part of costs for grassland enclosures and forages (17.57 billion yuan RMB between 2003-2012 benefiting more than 4.5 million herdsmen). Since 2003 such projects have been implemented in eight provinces such as Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Qinghai and Xinjiang. The central government has been subsidizing the construction of fences and the provision of forages. In 2011 the central government raised the subsidy standards and percentages. 300 yuan RMB per hectare is provided to fence building in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau while 240 yuan RMB per hectare to other regions. A subsidy of 300 yuan RMB per hectare is provided to reseeding grass; 2,400 yuan RMB per hectare to artificial forage farming and 3,000 yuan RMB per household for building feeding stables and rings. The central government invested cumulatively a total of 17.57 billion yuan RMB in this project during the period 2003-2012, with projects having benefited 174 counties, more than 900,000 farm households and more than 4.5 million farmers and herdsmen.
Establishing subsidies and incentives for ecological conservation of grasslands. Mechanism to subsidize and reward grassland ecology conservation established in 2011 (28.6 billion yuan RMB cumulatively, respectively to areas (820,000 km2) where grazing bans are implemented and areas (1.737 million km2) where balancing grass supply with herds is required. Since 2011 eight provinces or autonomous regions with most of the grasslands in China have established incentive measures for grassland ecology conservation, with a subsidy of 90 yuan RMB per hectare annually for grasslands where grazing is banned; 22.5 yuan RMB per hectare annually for grasslands where balance of herds and grass supply is implemented. Subsidies are also provided to herdsmen for their production, with 150 yuan RMB per hectare annually for grass seed and 500 yuan RMB per household annually for production materials. Herdsmen are also trained to promote their shift to new jobs. The subsidies for grassland ecology conservation increased from 13.6 billion yuan RMB in 2011 to 15 billion yuan RMB in 2012, with cumulative total investment reaching 28.3 billion yuan RMB. By the end of 2012, the areas covered by subsidies for grassland grazing bans have reached 820,000 km2, and the areas where rewards are given for keeping the herd-and-grass balance have reached 1,737,000 km2.
Subsidizing wetland conservation. In 2010 the Ministry of Finance together with the State Forestry Administration initiated subsidies for wetland conservation, which covered 27 wetlands of international importance, 43 natural wetland nature reserves and 86 national wetland parks. Some local governments also increased support to wetland conservation from government budgets, and gradually included important wetlands as part of ecological compensation. Restore mangroves and tidal flats and other important wetlands (nearly 3.875 billion yuan RMB since 2010).
Establishing funds for compensating forest ecological benefits. In 2004 China established national funds for compensation of forest ecological benefits, which subsidize plantation, nurturing, conservation and management of national-level public benefits forests, with funding allocated from the central government budgets (annual payment reaching 3 billion yuan RMB). Among them, a subsidy of 75 yuan per hectare is provided annually for state-owned national-level public benefits forests, and 225 yuan per hectare annually for national-level public benefits forests owned collectively and privately. In 2007, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued guidance for undertaking pilot work in ecological compensation, which required acceleration of the establishment of ecological compensation mechanisms for PAs. Some regions have established ecological compensation mechanisms on a pilot basis. For example, Jining City has issued rules for ecological compensation for wetland loss in Nansi Lake, Shandong Province. Currently the areas that have received such subsidies have reached 924,000 km2. In 2013 the central government provided a total of 14.9 billion yuan RMB for compensation for ecological benefits of forests. Local governments also compensated for local public benefits forests.
Establishing national mechanisms of ecological compensation for national key ecological function zones. Since the central government budget established in 2008 an item of fiscal transfers for national key ecological function zones, the scope of transfers has been constantly expanding. In 2012, funds were transferred to 466 counties (cities, districts), with the total funds reaching 37.1 billion yuan RMB. The funds played an important role in supporting development of PAs. In 2013 funds were transferred to 492 counties and 1,367 land zones prohibited for development, with the total of funds transferred reaching 42.3 billion yuan RMB. In 2013, scenic spots in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Xinjiang were included in the pilot work on ecological compensation.
Rural environment improvement (specialized fund of 19.5 billion yuan RMB since 2008)
Pilot Ecological Compensation in Xin'anjiang River Basin (Funds of 300 million yuan RMB were allocated in 2011 for compensation and specially used for water pollution control and water quality improvement in the upper reaches of Xin’an River. Among them 200 million yuan was allocated from the central government budget and 100 million yuan provided by Zhejiang Province.)
Promoting establishment of mechanisms for ecological compensation. In 2010 NDRC together with relevant ministries and commissions drafted a regulation on ecological compensation. This draft regulation provides principles, areas, targets, approaches and criteria for ecological compensation. Currently NDRC is studying and drafting a set of “recommendations for establishing and improving mechanisms for ecological compensation”.
Yunnan Biodiversity Fund (donation of 32.3 million yuan RMB and Yunnan Province’s budget totaling 50 million yuan RMB.
Eliminated in 2007 export subsidies of 553 highly energy-consuming, highly polluting and resource-consuming products, including products from endangered species, leather products, wood products and some disposal wood-made products.
Enhancing synergies of CBD with multilateral trade system: Incorporating biodiversity into policies, regulations and guidance issued by the Ministry of Commerce (In March 2009, the Ministry of Commerce and the State Forestry Administration jointly issued ‘Guidelines for Chinese Enterprises for Sustainable Forest Business and Use in Foreign Countries’. In February 2013, the Ministry of Commerce and the Ministry of Environmental Protection jointly issued ‘Environmental Guidelines for International Investment and Cooperation’, which requires enterprises involved to give priority to in-situ conservation and to minimize negative impacts on local biodiversity.), Taking biodiversity into consideration in international trade negotiations., Strengthening supervision of import and export of biological resources, Participating in development of biosafety regulatory systems, Constantly strengthening training of on-site customs officers, Investigating relevant cases in import and export (From January 2009 to December 2012, the anti-smuggling department of the customs investigated 406 cases of smuggling of rare animals and plants and their products, and seized 381 tons of smuggled rare animals and plants and their products, whose value was 5.83 billion yuan RMB. They also investigated 3,573 cases of administrative violations in this regard and seized products worth 130 million yuan RMB).
New progress made in South-South cooperation. In recent years the Government of China has been actively undertaking South-South cooperation in the field of biodiversity, by signing agreements of cooperation with many developing countries in areas related to biodiversity. China has organized a number of capacity development workshops for developing countries from the sub-regions such as South and Southeast Asia. China has also established a Center for China-ASEAN Environmental Cooperation, the first platform China has established for South-South environmental cooperation and regional environmental cooperation.
China has actively promoted development of organic farming. By 2012, China has had 20,000 km2 of land for eco-farming, ranking top in Asia. Eco-farming initiatives and demonstration projects for rural new energy were undertaken to enhance capacities for sustainable agricultural development, with focus on reuse of straw, use of biogas and solar energy in rural areas and establishment of eco-farming bases, with a view to increasing eco-farming efficiency and farmers’ income and improving the rural environment. So far more than 41 million rural households have used biogas and more than 150 million people benefited from this.
Guarantee funds for ecological restoration and environmental improvement of mining sector. (In 2006, the Ministry of Finance, together with the Ministry of Land Resources and the State Environmental Protection Administration developed guidance for establishing a responsibility system for ecological restoration and environmental improvement of the mining sector. The guidance requires the mining sector to provide guarantee funds out of their mining product sales incomes for ecological restoration and environmental improvement) (30 provinces established such funds for ecological and environmental restoration in the mining areas)(By the end of 2012, 80% of the mines have paid their guarantee funds, totaling 61.2 billion yuan RMB and accounting for 62% of the total funds that should be paid).
Estimated values of ecosystem services provided by forests in China in 2000, such as goods provided, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, water regulation, soil conservation, environment purification, nutrient cycling, recreation and biodiversity conservation (about 1.4 trillion yuan RMB/a, equivalent to 14.2% of China's GDP). Total values of grassland ecosystems (1.2403 trillion yuan RMB, equivalent to 149.79 billion USD, about 3,100 yuan RMB per hectare of grassland which far exceeds the value production on grasslands creates). Economic value of pollination for fruit and vegetable growth in 2008 (52.17 billion USD, accounting for 25.5% of the gross output value of 44 varieties of fruits and vegetables). In Hainan Island, the regulation function of its ecosystems valued eight times more than the value of goods produced. Value of ecosystem services provided in Xishuangbanna 11 times more than the total value of GDP of the region. total annual cost of invasive alien species to the environment and economy of China (around 119.9 billion yuan). China has issued technical guidelines for assessing the economic values of genetic resources, and is developing technical guidelines for assessing ecosystem services and functions. In 1998 China completed the national assessment of the economic values of biodiversity. In 2010 China completed a national assessment of service of forest ecosystems. China has also undertaken assessments of biodiversity values in some typical regions in different periods of time. All these assessments have provided a basis for developing theories and methods for economic evaluation of biodiversity. The Eighteenth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party held in November 2012 laid out a vision for building an ecological civilization and Beautiful China. The meeting required that national policy of protecting the environment and improving resource use efficiency would continue to be followed, and proposed that priorities would be given to energy conservation, protection and natural recovery of the environment. Future efforts will focus on promoting green, cycling and low carbon development so as to form the industrial structure, production and consumption patterns and spatial layouts favorable to the environment and conservation of natural resources. China is developing a system of goals, assessment methods and reward/penalty mechanisms that meet requirements of an ecological civilization. The biodiversity values will be incorporated into such system of goals and assessment methods.
Investments into biodiversity conservation (2001-2011). In recent years, China has increased substantially its investments into biodiversity conservation. The investments into projects, such as natural forest resources protection, wild animal and plant conservation, establishment of nature reserves and wetland conservation, have increased from 9.7 billion yuan RMB in 2001 to 21.77 billion yuan RMB in 2011, with the average annual increase of 13.7%, providing financial support to biodiversity conservation.
China Development Bank (CDB)

Compensation payments for maintaining – saving Beijing's Miyun Reservoir’s Water Quality (2012)
Planting orange orchards to curb soil erosion, China – the Ningu county's Meijiang Watershed (2012)
Converting water-intensive paddy to dryland crops, China (2012)
Payment for Ecosystem Services and Alternative Livelihoods in Rural China (2012)
Industries share sales revenue for watershed protection – Xingguo County, China (2012)
Regional payments for ecosystem services (PES) scheme funded through monthly salary contributions in Xinjiang, Uyghur Autonomous Region, China (2012)
Brief introduction to China TEEB National Action Plan, by Lile Hu, Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences
Eco-Compensation for Watershed Services in the People’s Republic of China (2011)
National-level Soil Erosion Control Policies in China (2010)
PRC-GEF Partnership: Mainstreaming Biodiversity Protection within the Production Landscapes and Protected Areas of the Lake Aibi Basin (GEF 2008)
China's Environmental Performance}: sectoral subsidies, environment-related taxes, user charges for public water supply, user charges for urban waste water treatment, pollution charge for industry, farm input subsidies, abstraction charges and irrigation water pricing, emission trading
Natural forest protection programme, sloping land conversion programme, forest ecosystem compensation programme.
Environmental expenditure.

Promoting Market-oriented Ecological Compensation Mechanisms: Payment for Ecosystem Services in China (2007)
cost of protecting pandas, invasive alien species
Chinese Practices of Ecological Compensation and Payments for Ecological and Environmental Services and its Policies in River Basins (2006)
Workshop on Payment Schemes for Environmental Services: Development of China's Ecological Compensation Scheme, Local Experience with the Ecological Compensation Scheme in Guangdong Province, Local Experience with the Ecological Compensation Scheme in Anhui Province, Reflections on China's Forest Ecological Compensation Fund, Description of Cropland Conversion Program (2002)
Evolution of Chinese foreign aid policy, funding, forms, geographical and sectoral distributions, administration and international cooperation
Cost and benefit analysis of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use in China 1998: estimated costs of conservation and sustainable use, full incremental costs of implementing the Convention’s obligations, as well as economic, social and ecological benefits of implementing the Convention.

agricultural sector, forestry, urban and rural development sector, marine sector, water resources sector, education sector, science and technology sector, poverty alleviation and development sector, land and resources management sector, commerce sector, customs sector, traditional Chinese medicine management sector, intellectual property management sector
Transfer payments in 2010
Enacting or revising laws and creating sound legal foundation, economic policies favorable to the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity, conducting commending activities of various forms, establishing and implementing economic incentives, working out and establishing social, cultural and ethical incentives in favor of conservation of biological diversity, supervising and inspecting the implementation of incentives
Emission fees
Environmental Fiscal Reform for Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction – China
Subsidies in World Fisheries: A Reexamination (1998) – China
tax reduction or exemption policies to promote ecological construction for nature conservation
Awards for nature management, preferential taxation on incomes under the Western Development Programme
Local Environment Funds, special fund for Basic Energy Saving Construction, special fund for renovation in energy-saving technologies, National Natural Sciences Foundation of China, Special Fund for Demonstration Projects Using Renewable Energy in Buildings, Special Fund for Commercialization of Wind Power Generation Equipment, renewable energy development fund, Environment and Conservation Fund (Hong Kong), Environmental Protection and Energy Conservation Fund, China Green Carbon Foundation, National Subsidy Fund for Management and Conservation of Key Ecological Forests
Credit policy for environmental protection, Alashan initiative, development of private forestry
Insurance scheme to protect Snow Leopards
Greening Banks: Highlights of 2012 International Green Credit Forum - China
WWF and Lafarge partnership on biodiversity
private sector participation in water supply and waste water services, foreign direct investment and overseas investment
Skills for green jobs in China (2010)
environmental impacts of WTO accession, forest imports, endangered species
(2008) China's participation in SSC
The Society of Entrepreneurs and Ecology
(1999)Tax exemptions for non-profit organizations
(2003)The Chinese Diaspora and Philanthropy
Harnessing Ecosystem Services for Local Livelihoods: the Case of Tea Forests in Yunnan, China
Development of ecological agriculture, logging quota system
Forest vegetation restoration fee, Saipan's upland mitigation bank
Policy of “the exploiters protect, the destroyers recover and the users compensate”
Topotecan with United States National Cancer Institute
Syngenta Crop Protection AG – HUBEI Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Pipa Horticultural Company. Ltd.
Natural resource accounting in China
Economic values of biodiversity in China (1998): direct use values, indirect values, option values, existence values, economic loss of biodiversity destruction, and baseline values of endangered species, as well as national accounting of green GDP
China's “Green GDP” Experiment and the Struggle for Ecological Modernisation
Green GDP Accounting Study Report 2004
Costs and Benefits of Biodiversity Conservation in China
Mapping Ecosystem Function Conservation Areas to integrate ecosystem services into land use plans in Baoxing County
Economic Values of Biodiversity in China
International experiences with "green GDP" (2006), by Statistics Norway
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
A Study Report on China Environmental and Economic Accounting in 2004 (2004), by National Bureau of Statistics of China
Study on Forest Accounting Greened GDP on Hainan Island in China (2004), by Graduate Institute of Environmental Education - National Taiwan Normal University
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting in China: Proposed Framework and Preliminary Findings (2006), by National Bureau of Statistics of China
Central biodiversity expenditure US dollars 2,005 million in 2010
During 1992-2004, China invested over 137 billion RMB for biodiversity conservation, equivalent to US$16.6 billion
Introduced environmental criteria including biodiversity in credit policies of its state-owned banks, and the practice may be replicated for all national development banks and agricultural banks
China Investment Corporation, China-Africa Development Fund, National Social Security Fund, SAFE Investment Company, Hong Kong Monetary Authority Investment Portfolio

Cook Islands
Climate change adaptation plan
Establish a Biodiversity Trust Fund, Emergency Response Trust Fund
National Environment Service, Ministry of Marine Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, non-government organizations
Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Cook Islands (2009)

Communal forest funds
agriculture, forest, water and wetlands, coastal and marine environment
(2012) Irrigation subsidies in Cyprus
Foundation A.G. Leventis

Democratic People's Republic of Korea
forest sector, agriculture sector, public health, fishery, efforts to raise public awareness of nature and ecological environment
Spending 1998
Financing in NBSAP1998, 2007

Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Strathclyde Institute -access rights, Trust Fund for biodiversity conservation; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Koyoyanitu ecotourism initiative - package holiday
REDD initiatives
ABS measures
University of the South Pacific–Strathclyde Institute of Drug Research Bioprospecting Agreement; University of the South Pacific – Strathclyde Institute
USP-BCN project: The Role of a Fijian Community in a Bioprospecting Project
Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Fiji (2009)
Locally Managed Marine Areas Network
Establishing a Biodiversity Conservation Trust Fund, *Sovi Basin Trust Fund, Fiji Heritage Foundation (FHF)
Ministry of Primary Industries – Agriculture, Forestry, Fisheries, Ministry of Lands, Mineral Resources & Energy, Ministry of Public Works Department, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Local Government, Urban Development, Housing and Environment, Department of Tourism
Benefits of Conservation

Bringing Foundations and Governments Closer: Evidence from India, OECD Development Centre, Paris. Total private giving by individuals and institutions in India is estimated at INR 520 billion (USD 8 billion) annually. It is expected that private formal giving in India could potentially reach as much as INR 1.5 trillion (USD 22.4 billion) annually, in the coming years, compared to USD 2.1 billion in official development assistance (ODA) allocated to India by OECD Development Assistance Committee donors.

India 2014, 2014 II, 2012 preliminery, 2012 Assessment of Funding Support

NBSAP1999, 2008, India submission on funding needs

Khasi Hills community REDD+ initiative, Meghalaya, India

Green India Mission (GIM)

Issue Paper: Green Bonds in India, Partnership to Advance Clean Energy-Deployment (PACE-D), Technical Assistance Program. In the Indian context, there are certain challenges for the issuance of Green Bonds in the international markets. These include high currency hedging costs; poor sovereign ratings (currently at BBB-); and low tenure (currently, Green Bond tenures are mainly concentrated between 3-10 years, with only some issuances reaching or exceeding 15 years tenure). However, there are opportunities for Indian entities to participate in Green Bonds at this nascent stage —though on a smaller scale issuance, ranging between USD 150-250 million.

Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)

Business and Biodiversity in India: 20 Illustrations, by Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Development Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)
India Business & Biodiversity Initiative (IBBI)
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity India Initiative
Collaborative Approaches for Biodiversity Conservation, by Vishaish Uppal, WWF-India
Integrated/Stakeholder Reporting: What, Why, How and When?, by Pavan Sukhdev, Founder & CEO, GIST Advisory
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREG) Act in 2005 (total financial outlay of MGNREGS for 2012-2013 is USD 5.5 billion)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Paying for ethno-biological knowledge and access rights in Kerala, Harda (MadhyaPradesh) – protected areas; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Ecotourism Sikkim - access rights, Paying for landscape beauty in Sikkim - management agreements; Case studies for watershed protection markets: MYRADA - land management contracts, Inter-state watershed protection contract, Water harvesting in the Arvari catchment - reduce siltation and water table regulation, Tradable water rights system and user fees
Alternatives to PES for Securing Delivery of Environmental Services
(2012)The Remittance Market in India: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Options

Hiware Bazaar- A village of millionaires, Maharashtra, India (2010)

UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. SANDEE (South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics). 2007. Mangroves – A Natural Defense against Cyclones: An Investigation from Orissa, India. SANDEE Policy Brief No. 24-07. Each hectare of mangrove forestland in the Indian state of Orissa has been estimated as worth more than $8,000 in its protection of coastlines and minimization of cyclone damages by lowering the degree of housing damage, reducing the incidence of livestock death and minimizing the destruction of other assets and property. Reddy, S., and S. Chakravarty. 1999. “Forest Dependence and Income Distribution in a Subsistence Economy: Evidence from India.” World Development 27(7):1141–49. A study of villages in the Himalaya region found that the poor relied on natural resources for about 25 percent of their income, as compared to less than 5 percent for the rich.

Fair deals for watershed services in India (2007)
Bhoj Wetland watershed services, India (2007)

Philanthropy and Equity: The Case of India, 2004

Indian submission on preliminary reporting framework
Indian submission on Assessment of Funding Support
India submission on needs assessment and targets
India submission on resource mobilization strategy and GEF-6 programme priorities
India submission on funding needs
India submission on resource mobilization indicators
India submission on innovative financial mechanisms
National Foundation for India, Plan India, Concern India Foundation, United Way, Sampradaan Indian Centre for Philanthropy ( SICP), Pradaan, Aga Khan Foundation

India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Trilateral
Organic farming is being promoted across the country under the National Project on Organic Farming (NPOF), a central sector scheme ( continuing since India's 10th Five Year Plan (2002-2007). A variety of incentives are disbursed to farmers under the NPOF scheme to encourage organic farming, which reduces negative impacts on the environment and biodiversity. Area under certified organic farming increased from 42,000 hectares during 2003-2004 to 10,50,000 hectares in 2009-2010. 'Green certification', such as the Green Thumb Certification Programme of the Applied Environmental Research Foundation, Pune, encourages conservation initiatives taken up by the private sector.
National Programme for Organic Production(NPOP).launched in 2004
Organic farming, certification
Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: India (2007)
Organic agriculture and the law – India (2012)
Sikkim – One of the organic states
Participatory Guarantee Systems for organic agriculture
National Biodiversity Authority of India
ABS policy
TBGRI-Kani, Tropical Botanic Garden Research Institute (TBGRI) – Kani, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI)
Know How Licencing Agreement between The Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Kerala, India (TBGRI) and The Arya Vaidya Pharmacy (Coimbatore) Ltd, Coimbatore, India (the PARTY), dated November 10th, 1995
Green National Accounts in India-A Framework' (
Green Accounting for Indian States and Union Territories (GAISP) 2004
Green Accounting Methodology for India and its States
The value of biodiversity in India’s forests
Estimating the value of agricultural cropland and pastureland in India
The value of timber, carbon, fuelwood, and non-timber forest products in India’s forests
Estimating the value of educational capital formation in India
Accounting for the ecological services of India’s forests: soil conservation, water augmentation, and flood prevention
Accounting for freshwater quality in India
Economic valuation in India
Integrating Forest Resources into the System of National Accounts in Maharashtra, India (2000), by Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press
Use of the Green Accounting Approach to Assess the Contribution of Watershed Values of the Forestry Sector to the Gross Domestic Product of Himachal Pradesh (2003), by FAO
The value of timber, carbon, fuelwood, and non-timber forest products in India’s forests (2005), by The Energy and Resources Institute
Accounting for India (2006), by Ecological Economics, Elsevier
The Value of Biodiversity in India's Forests (2006), by Green Accounting for Indian States Project
Natural Resource Accounting for Indian States: Illustrating the Case of Forest Resources (2007), by Ecological Economics, Elsevier
(2014) Central, state and provincial biodiversity expenditure (billions of US dollars): 1.06 (2006), 1.17 (2007), 1.55 (2008), 1.7 (2009), 1.55 (2010)
(2014) Total estimated funding for biodiversity conservation during 2013-2014 (USD 1482.68 million - 23 Ministries and Departments, 77 schemes)
Submission 2012
2006, 2009, and 2012
agriculture, livestock genetic resources and animal husbandry, forestry and wildlife (promotion of wildlife based eco-tourism, livelihoods from non-timber forest products, medicinal flora and fauna), inland waters and marine fisheries,land use planning, research and technology
Counting sectoral financing
In the budgetary context, subsidies are generally taken as unrecovered costs of public provision of goods that are not classified as public goods. These are private goods where user charges can be levied according to individual consumers or according to groups of consumers. Subsidies are often justified in the presence of positive externalities and for redistribution objectives. Financing of subsidies however induces its own cost and over subsidization can adversely affect allocation of resources and environment. In the context of huge resource dependent population and under several poverty alleviation programmes India has been providing subsidies in the agriculture, irrigation, energy and industry sectors, as a means of providing livelihood security to the underprivileged sections of the society. Major threats to biodiversity in India do not emanate from such subsidies. India has embarked on a regime to reduce/ remove some of the subsidies, and to make them better targeted and to promote efficiency in their administration. India has nevertheless taken significant measures to promote positive incentives that encourage activities beneficial to biodiversity. Studies have been carried out on mechanisms that incentivize States to conserve forests and biodiversity, by providing a 'green bonus' or determining State funding allocations based on growing stock of forests, ratio of dense forest cover to total forest cover, and total carbon stock.
Counting organic farming assistance
Subsidies, green procurement and purchase
Indo-British Rainfed Farming Project
Environmental Fiscal Reform for Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction – India
Water Cess, Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra (Friend of Trees) Awards, Rajiv Gandhi Wildlife Conservation Award
Discounts on entrance fees for exercising in Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur
Equitable sharing of benefits in Sukhomajri
The Use of Subsidies for Soil and Water Conservation: A Case Study from Western India
Reform of subsidy for chemical fertilizer
Public Expenditures and Subsidies in Indian Surface Irrigation: Who Benefits?
National Green Mission Fund
Watershed Development Fund, National Clean Energy Fund, Compensatory Afforestation Fund, Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF), National Energy Fund (NEF), Hydrogen Corpus Fund, India Infrastructure Project Development Fund (IIPDF), State Carbon Fund, Environment Fund
(2014) Private and market biodiversity expenditure (2006-2010)
(2014) The watershed programme of India Tobacco Company Limited (ITC) promotes development and local management of water resources by facilitating village-based participation in the planning and execution of watershed projects in eight States across India-Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Adopting a bottom-up participatory approach, with disadvantaged sections as the primary target, ITC works with NGOs as implementation partners to mobilize them to form Water User Groups. ITC's integrated watershed development programme conserves soil and moisture in over 90,000 hectares of land in water-stressed areas. Tata Power's hydroelectric plants are located in the biodiversity-rich Western Ghats of Maharashtra and are almost 100 years old. Tata Power has been actively involved in conservation efforts and in the protection of biodiversity in these catchment areas of six lakes in the Western Ghats of Maval and Mulshi Taluka in Pune District. Tata Power has also been working towards conservation of endangered Mahseer (Tor putitora; Tata Power's Trombay power station has preserved marshes near its facility for flamingos, which migrate in winter to this natural habitat to feed on algae that grow there. The area has been declared as an IBA by the BNHS and Bird Life International. This area has been identified as an important nesting site for many migratory birds such as sandpipers, plovers, gulls and terns apart from having a large population of flamingos. Several other corporates are also getting engaged in promoting biodiversity conservation activities. Widely regarded as the backbone of the Indian economy, the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector is highly diverse and heterogeneous in its structure. A major part of the Indian MSME sector is 'local' in its operations and outlook. Yet it impacts the environment and society in its own way. One of the critical aspects of responsible business practices, regulated by National Voluntary Guidelines, is that businesses should not only be responsible but also be seen as being socially, economically and environmentally responsible. While the guidelines, encompassing nine Principles and related Core Elements, identify the areas where responsible practices need to be adopted, the Reporting Framework provides a standard disclosure template that is used by businesses to report on their performance in these areas. The objective of incorporating this framework in the Guidelines is to help businesses reach out to their stakeholders with necessary information and data demonstrating the adoption of the Guidelines (National Voluntary Guidelines-2011-2012 of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MoCA), ( Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is way of conducting business, by which corporate entities visibly contribute to the social good. Socially responsible companies do not limit themselves to using resources to engage in activities that increase only their profits. They use CSR to integrate economic, environmental and social objectives with the company's operations and growth. In this context, the GoI has enacted the Companies Act 2013 which makes CSR spend mandatory for every company with a net worth of ` 500 crore or more or turnover of `1000 crore or more or a net profit of ` 5 crore or more during any financial year. Two percent of the average net profits made by the company during every block of 3 years are to be used for CSR activities. Ensuring environmental sustainability has been identified as one of the nine activities to be covered under CSR activities.
Tata Power Ltd, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIMB); Tata Steel and greenhouse gas accounting and reporting
Conserving wetlands through microfinance programs
(2005) Implementing Rio Conventions and Montreal Protocol through partnership initiatives in India
Do Stock Markets Penalise Environment-Unfriendly Behaviour? Evidence from India
Sustainable consumption and production
Sustainable Production, Technology
Skills for green jobs in India (2010)
National Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS)

Building Inclusive Green Economies: Highlights from the UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative in Asia Pacific. In the Heart of Borneo, an average of 850,000 hectares of forest is lost every year due to palm oil plantations, mining and timber production. Between 80 and 95 million people are estimated to be dependent of forest products. 25% of decline in forest cover, around 24 million hectares from 1991 and 2010. The quality of much of the remaining forest is also declining due to poor forestry practices, uncontrolled logging and fire. 27 species of mammals, including dolphin, whale and dugong are endangered. 50% decrease in the ability of reef systems to provide food for coastal populations by 2050 is predicted, if current climate trends continue. Across six Coral Triangle countries, at least 6 million people are directly employed in primary capture, fisheries or secondary production. In 2007, the capture fisheries sector in Indonesia provided employment for 2.2 million people. Budget coding combined with a survey of international partners estimates that public climate finance flows in Indonesia were $951 million in 2011. Budget coding did not solve the problem of uncertainty. Around $1 billion was identified in additional finance that might be highly relevant but could not be verified.
Climate Finance in Indonesia: Lessons for the Future of Public Finance for Climate Change Mitigation
International Public Finance to Address Climate Change in Indonesia – Lessons for the Future of European Development Cooperation
Reducing Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Ulu Masen Ecosystem, Aceh
Outcome based payments for improved water quality, RUPES, Indonesia (2013)
(2013) Greening Banks: Highlights of 2012 International Green Credit Forum - Indonesia
Design of payment schemes for conservation and the role of intermediaries in Indonesia, by Romain Pirard, CIFOR
Local Watershed Payments, WWF version
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) scheme implemented in the Cidanau Watershed, Indonesia (2010)
Skills for green jobs in Indonesia (2010)
Non-governmental standard development and certification for Palm Oil: Ecosystem services and local administrators in the case of the “Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil” (RSPO)(2010)
Ecosystem restoration license
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. Official data show that forests contribute between 1 and 2 percent of GDP in Indonesia, whereas the World Bank estimates that the potential value of forests to that economy is closer to 15 to 20 percent of GDP.
Promoting Sustainable Production Forest Management to Secure Globally Important Biodiversity (GEF 2009) 2008
What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)
Strategic Plan: Sustainable Tourism and Green Jobs for Indonesia
Diaspora Philanthropy Organization
The Malaysia-Indonesia Remittance Corridor: Making Formal Transfers the Best Option for Women and Undocumented Migrants

SFM Strengthening Community Based Forest and Watershed Management (SCBFWM) (GEF 2007)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Wasur Project – protected areas; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Sumber Jaya Lampung - land management contracts, Payments for improved water quality; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Tourism licences/concessions in protected areas, Gunung Halimun National Park (Java) - ecotourism package; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Reduced Impact Logging in East Kalimantan (USIJI)
Integrated Marine Management Concessions – A New Approach to an Old Problem
2005 Review of the Development Environmental Services Market in Indonesia (2005)
Institutional Constraints and Opportunities in Developing Environmental Service Markets: Lessons from Institutional Studies on RUPES in Indonesia (2005)
Getting Started Before You Begin: Experiences from Environmental Service Benefit Transfer Schemes in Indonesia (2005)
A Role for Effective, Efficient, and Equitable Conservation Concessions in Conserving Natural Resources in Indonesia (2003)
Payments for Environmental Services as an Alternative to Logging under Weak Property Rights: The Case of Indonesia
Designing Payments for Environmental Services in the Context of Weak Property Rights and Commercial Interests
NBSAP1993, 2003

Tax exemptions for non-profit organizations
Indonesia South South and Triangular Cooperation
Indonesia Certification program
Environmental Accounting for Sustainable Growth and Development with Special Reference to a System of Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA): The Indonesian Experience
The Biodiversity Benefits of Coral Reef Ecosystems: Values and Markets
Economic benefits of biological diversity
Integrating Ecosystem Services into Spatial Planning in Sumatra
Economic Analysis for Taka Bone Rate Marine Protected Area, Costs and Benefits of Coral Mining in Lombok
Green National Accounts: Policy Uses and Empirical Experience (1996), by World Bank
Indonesian Forest Resource Accounting With Special Reference on Rainforest Timber in Kalimantan Island (2000), by National Statistical Coordination Board
National Budget for Development (APBN): Rp. 569,878,995,000 (2003); Rp. 618,217,974,200 (2002); Rp. 464,202,000,000 (2001); Rp. 302,191,944,019 (1999/2000)
process of integrating
Removal of pesticide subsidies
Reforestation Insurance Fund, Tesonelo NP Trust Fund, Heart of Borneo Trust Fund, and Yayasan Kehati (the Indonesia Biodiversity Foundation), Indonesia Climate Change Trust Fund (ICCTF), *Cenderawasih Conservation Fund, *Indonesian Biodiversity Foundation; *Reforestation Fund; *West Papua Conservation Fund
Indonesia Exim Bank
Government Investment Unit
Swap Opportunities
The Aceh REDD+ debt for nature swap

Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Organic farms
Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries were US$ 500,000 to 1,000,000 (2005)
integrating biodiversity into relevant sectors
Green Prize, ISO 14001 and Environmental honouree medal, tax exemptions
Farmers income stabilization fund, income stabilization fund for livestock and poultry producers
ICCAs for biodiversity in development cooperation EuropeAid-Iran, by Taghi Farvar & Nahid Naghizadeh, CENESTA, UNINOMAD, & ICCA Consortium
National Development Fund of Iran

institutional structure
Development Fund
Swap Opportunities

JICA’s Approaches for Mainstreaming Biodiversity toward ABTs and SDGs, Noriaki Sakaguchi, Japan International Cooperation Agency, December 2016
Climate assistance
Japan 2014, 2014 II, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2010)
direct payment for environmentally friendly farming (amounted to JPY 31 million in 2012) if farmers will reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers or pesticides by 50 %
Conserving water through upstream-downstream relationships: Yahagigawa River water source forest profit-sharing afforestation project; river basin tariffs for trans-border water source management in Fukuoka City; conserving water by recharging groundwater in Kumamoto; afforestation activities by fishermen of the sea
Kabukuri Weltands Win-Win Solutions for Conservation and Development, Osaki City, Miyagi, Japan (2013)
Submission 2012
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Japan’s private climate finance support: mobilising private sector engagement in climate compatible development(2012)
Financing in NBSAP2010
payments for environmentally friendly farming, paying for ecosystem services: the Yodo river. Payments for environmentally friendly farming has evolved as direct payment system: The direct support for farming activities highly effective in biodiversity conservation and joint activities to support the multiple functions of agriculture by the Japan direct payment system and the Act on fulfillment of multifunctional roles of agriculture which legislates the scheme of the Japan direct payment system. (Note: The Act was passed in June 2014 and will be enforced in April 2015.)
Restoring Rice Paddy Field Habitats to Reintroduce the Oriental White Stork in Toyooka City (2010)
Tap water fee for forest management, Japan (2010)
Japanese Approach on Positive incentive in Biodiversity (e.g. PES)
Payments for forest and agriculture land management
A New Certification System for Sustainable Land Use Encourages Sustainable Urban Development, by Makoto Haraguchi, Director of ABINC
Who are JBIB? A Brief Introduction, by Dr. Adachi Naoki, Japan Business Initiative for Biodiversity
Development of a Toolkit for Sustainable Land Use, by Takashi Miwa, Takenaka Corporation, Leader of JBIB Sustainable Land Use working group
Insurance Company's Business Contribution to Protect Biodiversity, by Katsutoshi Akiba, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Company
Mori Building's Biodiversity Initiatives Sengokuyama Mori Tower, by Hiroki Yamaguchi, Head of Landscape, Mori Building
Biodiversity conservation activities of Japanese financial sector, by Mr. Rikiya Konishi, Deputy Director, Global Biodiversity Strategy Office, Nature Conservation Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan
How Japanese Business Initiates Mainstreaming Biodiversity?, by Akira Ichikawa, Keidanren, Committee on Nature Conservation
Japan submission on resource mobilization strategy
Japan submission on resource mobilization indicators
Japan submission on innovative financial mechanisms
Japan submission on resource mobilization strategy
forest environmental tax in 33 prefectures out of 47 (around 70%), mostly as a five-year temporary measure (fixed amount ranging from JPY 500 to 1000 per person and 5 to 11% of prefectural cooperate taxes per company)
Conserving forest environments with tax revenues: Tochigi Prefectural Tax for Healthy Forest-Making; increased tax rates for the Prefectural Inhabitant Tax on individuals to fund water source environment programmes (Kanagawa Basic Policies for Conservation and Restoration of Water Source Environment, and Kanagawa Five-Year Action Plan for Conservation and Restoration of Water Source Environment)
Subsidies in World Fisheries: A Reexamination (1998) – Japan
Reforming Energy and Transport Subsidies: Environmental and Economic Implications - The Social Costs of Motor Vehicle Use in Japan
green public procurement, fiscal policy and the environment, environmental dimension of fiscal stimulus packages, greening the tax system, subsidies to promote environment-friendly products, prefectural forestry protection tax, Yokoyama greenery tax, carbon tax, emission trading
Introducing an Environmental Tax for Forests
Green Fund backed by Act for the Promotion of Forest Improvement in April 1995, reached JPY 2.3 billion in 2011 from direct donation from households, collective donations from employees of companies, direct donations from each company
Global Environment Conservation Research Fund, Global Environmental Research Fund
(2014) Social Responsible Investment (SRI) fund by Nikko Asset Management Co., Ltd in 1999, equity fund by Sumitomo Mitsui Trust Bank to invest in Japanese companies that commit themselves to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity-related resources, Principles for Financial Action towards a Sustainable Society in November 2011. As of December 2013, the amount of SRI assets in Japan is JPY 86 billion, the assets of investment and bond are JPY 25 and 69 billion respectively
(2014) Japan Business Initiative for Biodiversity (the number of member companies increased from 14 to 54 between 2008 and 2013) and Japan Business and Biodiversity Partnership (the rate of integration of biodiversity concept into corporate philosophy increased from 50% in 2010 to 85% in 2014, and the Partnership increased from 424 member organizations to 503 organizations September 2013)
Financial sector initiatives: low interest loans for greening in Nagoya City; biodiversity ratings by local banks
Private Enterprises
Risk measurement in Konica Minolta
Low interest loans for greening in Nagoya City, Biodiversity ratings by local banks
Waste reduction to conserve tidal flat
Water Source Forest Management by Private Sector
Best Practices in Sustainable Finance - Sompo Japan Insurance Inc.
involving the financial sector, business declaration on biodiversity
Japan expanding environment-related markets and employment, environment-trade interface (forest products, endangered and threatened species, fisheries)
(2014) JICA’s platform for South-South technical cooperation & capacity building - Integrated Biodiversity and Ecosystem and Management in Sabah, Malaysia (previously Program for Bornean Biodiversity and Ecosystems Conservations (BBEC) (2007- 2012))
South-South and triangular cooperation: Recent trends and progress
Counting funding for technical and South-South cooperation
South-South/Triangular Cooperation and Capacity Development
Future scenario of Japan’s Triangular Cooperation
Japan Foundation Centre, The Asahi Glass Foundation, Expo’90 Foundation, The Honda Foundation, Japan Fund for Global Environment, The Kurita Water and Environment Foundation (KWEF), Nagao Natural Environment Foundation (NEF)
Tax exemptions for non-profit organizations
(2014) NGOs, foundation, and academia biodiversity expenditure in JPY (Million): 509 (2006), 663 (2007), 716 (2008), 993 (2009), 943 (2010), 1,343 (2011), 954 (2012).
(2011) Japan review
Japan Bank for International Cooperation and Japanese International Cooperation Agency
90 million and 40 million hectors certified by FSC and Sustainable Green Ecosystem Councils (SGEC) (Public Procurement Policy in 2001, Wood Procurement Guidelines in 2006), 8,782 wood producers certified by March 2013, certified rice sold in average 30% higher than uncertified
Rice on Sado Island that is certified as being grown in harmony with animals
Conserving Satoyama through environment-friendly rice production - Kabukuri-numan and surrounding rice paddies; restoring rice paddy habitats to reintroduce the oriental white stork in Toyooka City; reintroducing the crested ibis and rice production; fish cradle rice paddies project
Restoring agricultural wetlands benefits both farmers and geese
Organic agriculture and the law – Japan (2012)
Reintroducing the Japanese Crested Ibis in Sado, Japan (2010)
Fertilizing the fields with ducks, Japan (2013)
2001 municipal compensatory mitigation ordinance, Satoyama banking
Offsetting industrial groundwater consumption through partnerships between industry and farmers
NIAS Genebank & Conservation and Sustainable Use of Microbial Resources
economic evaluations of the publicly beneficial functions of forests in 1972, 1991, and 2000, Evaluation of Multiple Functions of Agriculture and Forests in relation to the Global Environment and Human Livelihood (2001), economic value of ecosystem services in Kabukurinuma
Estimations of the monetary value of the multiple functions of forests, value of biodiversity which can be conserved by designating the Amami Islands as National Parks and value of biodiversity which can be conserved by implementing measures to control feeding damage by sika deer (Cervus nippon) on natural vegetation nationwide
The Case of Oze Area: Case Study on the Japanese Experience Concerning Economic Aspects of Conserving Biodiversity
Economic Valuation of Oku-Aizu Forest Ecosystem Reserve in Japan
Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
Green National Accounts: Policy Uses and Empirical Experience (1996), by World Bank
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
The Weight of Nations (2000), by World Resources Institute
The Development of Environmental Accounting Frameworks and Indicators for Measuring Sustainability in Japan (2003), by OECD
New System of Integrated Environment and Economic Accounting (Trial Calculation on Hybrid Accounting System integrating Environmental Pressures and Economic Activities) (2004), by Cabinet Office
(2014) central biodiversity expenditure (2006-2012), state and provincial, local and municipal (2012), The Basic Policies for Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform including conservation and utilization of biodiversity. Central JPY million: 317,416 (2006), 285,056 (2007), 279,602 (2008), 261,233 (2009), 144,156 (2010), 144,732 (2011), 139,285 (2012). Central, provincial and local JPY million: 165,827 (2012)
Submission 2012
environmental expenditure, public expenditure on nature conservation
agriculture, forestry and fisheries, forests, urban areas, official development assistance (ODA), local governments, private enterprises, scientific bodies
Government Pension Investment Fund

National Master Plan Jordan 2010, State Budget Strategy 2007-2010, the National Strategy for Agricultural Development 2002-2010, sustainable Jordanian Agenda 21, National Tourism Strategy 2004-2010
Tax exemption
Jordan Fund for Nature, Road Maintenance Fund, National Disaster Fund, energy efficiency fund, National Aid Fund
Foundation for the Future, Jordan River Foundation, The King Hussein Foundation (KHF), The Jordanian Hashemite Fund for Human Development (JOHUD), The Foundation for the Future, The Jordan River Foundation (JRF), Ruwwad (The Arab Foundation for Sustainable Development)
Direct and indirect values
Spending 2005
Swap Opportunities
Swap with Germany

biotechnology, Agriculture, Water, State forest fund, Hunting, Fisheries, Forestry, Nature reserve fund, and Ecotourism
Payment for using natural resources, environmental licenses
Established a Kazakhstan's Fund for Conservation of Biodiversity (including all its statutory and regulatory documents), which is the first specialized non-governmental environmental Fund not only for Kazakhstan, but also for the CIS countries. It must create a mechanism of additional financing for projects aimed at conservation of biodiversity through providing grants to legal entities. The Fund was created on the basis of analysis of advanced international experience in compliance with the generally recognized international norms and standards. At the stage of its establishment UNDP and GEF provide financial, organizational and technical support to the Fund (GEF allocates funds in the amount of $1.5 million). The Biodiversity Conservation Fund, despite contributions of two Kazakhstan's companies ("Air Astana", "Kazakhmys") until now could not reach sufficient capitalization for full-scaled activities. It is connected to the fact that Kazakhstan's corporate sector still lacks stimulus for contributing funds to charities and environmental activities.
Biodiversity Conservation Fund, Aral Sea Salvation Fund; *Kazakh State Environmental Protection Fund; *National Environmental Protection Fund
(2014) The dynamics of private investments to development of hunting in the period from 2010 to 2013. Positive incentives for biodiversity conservation in the hunting sector are based on the active inclusion in this process of hunting users with assignment of the lands to them for a long term period from 10 to 30 years. Hunters invest their own funds to the development of hunting, including costs of payments to rangers and conducting biological activities. In total, the country has 675 hunting farms with the area of 120.0 million hectares ( 44.2 % of the country ); in 2013 hunting users contributed 1801.6 million tenge ( about $ 12,000,000 ) into the development of hunting farms. The number of hunting farms, their technical infrastructure and maintenance costs, regularly increased during 4 years.
Private Sector Investment
The amount of financial resources (from all sources), spent for fishery activities in the period from 2010 to 2013. Positive incentives for use of fish resources are realized by granting fishery ponds to users on a long-term basis. To date, 1791 fishery ponds (sites) are secured for 1004 users who have signed fishery contracts for 10 years. Users invest their own funds for the protection and reproduction of fish resources, researches and strengthening the material - technical base. During 2006-2013 users invested over 10 billion tenge (about $ 67,000,000) to these spheres.
The biodiversity, as a value of ecosystem services in Kazakhstan, has not been evaluated from the economic perspective at the legislative level. The first pilot assessment was conducted in 2013 in the Karkarala SSPA, in order to determine the economic value of SSPA based on the assessment of some of its ecosystem services in monetary terms for the subsequent replication of this practice in the system of protected areas in Kazakhstan. The total annual value of ecosystem services in SSPA, as per these estimates, made up 86 million 371 thousand dollars.
Kazakhstan has adopted the Concept of transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to a "green economy”, approved by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan № 577 on May 30, 2013 with the aim to harmonize relations between people and the nature. The conceptual framework of the strategy includes the following documents: the Strategy of Development of Kazakhstan until 2030; the Strategic development plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan untill 2020; the Sectoral Programme "Zhasyl damy" for 2010-2014, the Strategy of Industrial and Innovation Development for 2003-2015 and other programs and documents. The "green economy" is an important tool for the sustainable development. Transition to a "green economy" will allow Kazakhstan to achieve, by 2050, its goal of becoming one of the 30 most developed countries in the world. Overall, the level of investments needed for transition to a "green economy" will make up about 1% of GDP annually, equivalent to 3-4 billion U.S. dollars per year. The main priorities for the transition to a "green economy" are as follows: 1) more efficient use of resources (water, land, biological etc.) and their effective management; 2) modernization of the existed infrastructure and construction of new infrastructure; 3) improved welfare of the population and the quality of the environment through cost-effective ways for mitigation of pressure on the environment; 4) enhancing of the national security, including water security. One of the priority areas, specified in the concept, is the "Conservation and efficient management of ecosystems".
(2014) At the national level in accordance with existing state programs, in recent years there is a steady increase of the funds spent on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Thus, the current “Zhasyl Damu” Program for 2010 had total funding of 31914.1 million Tenge (about $ 212 800 000), the plan for 2014 – 38 089.9 million Tenge (about $ 253 900 000). Investments in the Concept of transition to a “green economy” will be made to an average of 1% of GDP until 2050.
Annually (2004-2005), the budgetary allocations from the republican budget to the CFH for development and maintaining protected areas is, at least, KZT 2,000 mln. =US $15.4 mln. For conservation and restoration of fish resources the Fishery Committee receives, at least, KZT 1,000 mln. = US $7.7 mln. The realization of the development of specially protected natural territories of the Republic of Kazakhstan allocated from the state budget: 2007 - 5.5 million tenge, 2008 - 72.33 million tenge, 2009 - 69.98 million tenge
Samruk-Kazyna JSC, Kazakhstan National Fund, National Investment Corporation of National Bank

UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. The fisheries sector contributes more than 10 percent of GDP in Kiribati.
Organic Agriculture and Fair Trade in Pacific Island Countries - Kiribati (2009)
Kiribati Revenue and Equalization Reserve Fund
Monetary value of biodiversity
Revenue Equalization Reserve Fund

Kuwait submission on resource mobilization strategy
Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences
Kuwait Fund for Development
Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development (KFAED)
Economics plan
Kuwait Investment Authority

agriculture, environmental education and public awareness, public health, forestry, mining industry, development of rural rayons, tourism, finance, trade and industry
Republic and Local Environmental Funds
Private Resources
(2005) Integrating Mining and Biodiversity Conservation: Community and Business Forum
Mitigation for open pit gold mine
Environmental Expenditure Data Collection and Reporting in Kyrgyz Republic
Information on financing and technical assistance provided to the organizations and institutions of the State Forestry Service in thousands of US dollars: 509.65 (1996), 736.03 (1997), 29.64 (1998), 1598.41 (1999), 1394 (2000), 1205.37 (2001), 2185.57 (2002), 2604.72 (2003), 2421.34 (2004), 2361.3 (2005). Information on financing of the state reserves by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Ministry of Ecology and Emergency Situations from the republican budget: 216.58 (1996), 171.8 (1997), 108.94 (1998), 98.85 (1999), 104.08 (2000), 95.63 (2001)
Pre-feasibility Analysis, Project Pipelines and Institutional Support for Debt-for-Environment Swap in the Kyrgyz Republic, part 2
Swap opportunities

Lao People's Republic
WWF: Testing Sustainable Financing for Conservation in the Greater Mekong, March 2015. In Laos, the first functional Community Biodiversity Conservation Agreements was established incentivizing sustainable land use by beneficiary communities.
Building Inclusive Green Economies: Highlights from the UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative in Asia Pacific. 70% contribution of agriculture, forestry and fishing to total poverty reduction. 90% estimates of population that depends on subsistence agriculture. Forests, agricultural land, water and hydropower potential, and mineral resources comprise more than half the country’s total wealth. 60% of FDI is based on natural resources. 55% of rural cash income is estimated to be made by non timber Forest products. 40% decline in forest cover between 1940 and 2010.
Relevance of Payments for Environmental Services (PES) for Watershed Management in Northern Laos, by Claire Mousquès, et al. The PES concept, with some adaptations, may offer interesting avenues as a means to maintain water quality through an improved control of soil erosion in the upper catchment: Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) within the sampled population was approx. USD 0.3/month/household which would be sufficient to abate the negative impact of soil erosion. At the whole catchment scale, major impediments to the immediate implementation of a PES scheme were i) the lack of an unequivocal relationship between environmental services, users and providers, ii) insufficient WTP to maintain water quality along the stream through waste management and iii) absence of a critical mass of buyers.
Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Incentive payments for Eld’s deer conservation in Savannakhet Province
Managing Private Investment in Natural Resources: A Primer for Pro-Poor Growth and Environmental Sustainability (2011)
Compensation from hydropower facility
Spending 2010
What’s Driving the Wildlife Trade? A Review of Expert Opinion on Economic and Social Drivers of the Wildlife Trade and Trade Control Efforts (October 2008)
IUCN: Making the Economic Links between Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Lao PDR. L. Emerton, Colombo: IUCN. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the value added to livelihoods from non-tim¬ber forest product collection in 2000 was calculated to be more than $185 million, as com¬pared to gross revenues from commercial round log harvesting of approximately $50 million.
University of Illinois at Chicago/UIC and Traditional Medicine Research Center/Laos
The Role of Forest Food Resources in Village Livelihood Systems: A Study of Three Villages in Salavan Province, Lao PDR. Clendon, K. 2001. Vientiane: IUCN. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, wild foods are consistently ranked as the most important forest resource by rural villagers. In one province, they have been estimated to contribute between 61 and 79 percent of non-rice food consumption by weight and to pro¬vide an average of 4 percent of energy intake, 40 percent of calcium, 25 percent of iron and 40 percent of vitamins A and C.
forestry, water resources, energy, fisheries, road/infrastructure development, trade and industry, agriculture (sustainable agriculture strategy, conserving agricultural biodiversity), tourism, actions on integrating biodiversity conservation into development activities
Investment incentives for sustainable development: The case of Lao PDR
Environmental Protection Fund; *Forest and Forest Resource Development Fund
Balancing the Returns to Catchment Management: The Economic Value of Conserving Natural Forests in Sekong, Lao PDR
Participatory valuation of forests in subsistence economy in Sekong, Lao PDR
Sekong Province, Lao PDR: economic returns from conserving natural forests
Wetlands reduce damages to infrastructure

Arab Environment Facility
Spending 2006, 2009
forestry, including National Reforestation Plan and National Strategy for Forest Fires, hunting, agriculture, fishery, urban planning, industry, economy and trade, water & energy, tourism, communication, education
Award, tax incentives
National Environment Fund, transport fund
Private sector land management
Makhzoumi Foundation, The Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND)
Tax incentives for local production
Business for the poor: Healthy Basket, a socially responsible company trading in organic produce in Lebanon and the Middle East
Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute –RBG, Kew
Prospecting Biodiversity
Access and Benefit-Sharing Agreement between the Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute, Tal Amara, Rayak, Lebanon and The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE United Kingdom

National Sustainable Consumption and Production Blueprint, Introduction of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) to be implemented by farmers. The Malaysian Good Agricultural Practices (MyGAP) initiative was launched in 2013. It is essentially a rebranding and consolidation exercise of three schemes namely the Malaysian Farm Certification Scheme for Good Agricultural Practices, the Livestock Farm Practices Scheme and the Malaysian Aquaculture Farm Certification Scheme. It is a comprehensive certification scheme for agricultural, aquaculture and livestock sectors which is implemented based on the Malaysian Standard (MS). The Malaysian Organic Scheme (MOS) is a certification programme to certify farms that are operated using organic methods according to the criteria and guidelines stipulated within the Malaysian Organic Scheme Standard. The Standard is based on the Malaysian Standard entitled ‘MS1529:2001 The Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Plant Based Organically Produced Foods’. It also covers the conditions and criteria regulated by law in relation to impacts to environment, food safety and as well as employee health and safety. Benefits derived from such a certification can be summarised as follows: Yield produced from farms that have been certified can be labelled as an organic product and have the right to use the Malaysian Organic label on these products. Consumers are provided the assurance that the products purchased are truly organic and do not contain unwanted chemical residues as the product has been endorsed as being in compliance to the MOS. As the use of chemical fertiliser and pesticide are prohibited under the organic farming scheme, it directly translates to the fact that no contamination to the environment or the possibility of poisoning among manufacturers or workers has occurred.

UNDP: Malaysia Millennium Development Goals Report 2015: Promoting trade and investment through the Malaysian South-South Corporation Berhad, Malaysia South-South Association (MASSA), Malaysia’s contribution to the Malaysian Technical Cooperation Programme and South-South Cooperation.
Improving Connectivity in the Central Forest Spine (CFS) Landscape - IC-CFS (GEF 2012)
Voluntary Malua Biobank, gm version
Malua Wildlife Habitat Conservation Bank Launches in Sabah, Malaysia: New Business Model Generates Innovative Product to Support Wildlife Conservation (2008)
National reports on spending 2005, 2007

Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Infapro - a FACE project, Reduced impact logging in Sabah
Net Accumulation of Timber Resources (1999), by Center for Environmental Economic and Policy in Africa

Economic Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services in Malaysia
Marine Parks Trust, Wildlife Conservation Trust Fund, Taman Negara (National Park) trust Fund, State Trust Funds; *Forest Development Funds
Private Sector Participation
Malua Wildlife Habitat Conservation Bank: An opportunity to help address one of the world’s most pressing issues

Calanolide with United States National Cancer Institute; National Cancer Institute (NCI) – Sarawak; Interests and policies of the state of Sarawak, Malaysia regarding intellectual property rights for plant derived drugs
Recent Initiatives to Develop Access and Benefit-Sharing Regulations
Khazanah Nasional

Reports 2002, 2010
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. The fisheries sector contributes more than 10 percent of GDP in the Maldives.
The Economic Value of Marine and Coastal Biodiversity to the Maldives Economy. Counting Coastal Ecosystems as an Economic Part of Development Infrastructure. Colombo: IUCN. In the Maldives, marine and coastal tourism directly accounts for 20 percent of GDP, and its wider effects help produce 74 percent of national income. This tourism contributes more than 60 percent of foreign exchange receipts, and over 90 percent of government tax revenue comes from import duties and tourism-related taxes. Further, almost 40 percent of the country’s workforce is employed in the industry.
National Environment Conservation Fund

Marshall Islands
Evidences of biodiversity values
Fines and penalties

Micronesia (Federated States of)
NBSAP2000, Micronesia submission on funding needs
Micronesian Conservation Trust Fund (MCT)
Ecological Sustainable Industry
Environmental certification
Impact of biodiversity loss
Micronesia (Federated States of)

WWF: Talking Business: the Importance of Valuing Natural Capital for Businesses in the Lower Mekong Region, June 2015. Annual value added of US$ 10.45 billion by switching to a Green Economy approach in the Greater Mekong, annual value added of $2.52 billion to harvested production.
WWF: Green Growth in the Greater Mekong Subregion, March 2014. Retail value of Mekong River fisheries estimated at more than US$4 billion annually. The Lower Mekong River provides the main source of food for 60 million people. The Greater Mekong’s natural capital directly supports 80 per cent of the region’s population by providing vital ecosystem services. The value of over $55 billion that could be added cumulatively to the combined economies of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam by 2035 through implementing green economic growth policies that maintain natural capital over and above the value added by ‘Business as Usual’ economic development.
Building Inclusive Green Economies: Highlights from the UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative in Asia Pacific. 2/3 of the world’s poor live in Asia and depend heavily on natural resources. As the demand for wood and other forest products increases, so does the demand for ecosystem services, such as the availability of water and flood prevention by forested watersheds. Firewood accounts for 72% of all harvested wood in South East Asia and 93% of all harvested wood in South Asia. Between 481-579 million people depend on forests in South East Asia. 12% of the total greenhouse gas emissions come from Southeast Asia. 75% of this can be attributed to land use change, including deforestation. 30% decrease in crop yields projected by IPCC in Central and South Asia. Unsustainable fishing practices have caused large declines in fish stocks. In the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, there has been a 40% decline in 5 years. 40% of the coral reefs and mangroves have disappeared in the Coral Triangle, in the last 40 years. 7.5 % predicted decline in total fish in the Pacific region under a medium emissions scenario. By 2100, the predicted economic loss due to climate change in the Pacific region would range between 2.9% to 12.7% of the annual GDP.
Climate Finance Regional Briefing: Asia and Pacific, November 2013. 30 countries in the Asia and Pacific region1 together have received one fourth of all global public climate finance so far. Distribution of finance across Asian countries has been uneven: India and China are the largest recipients of climate finance to date. Small Pacific Island states by contrast have received relatively small amounts of support despite their vulnerability. A total of nineteen dedicated climate funds and initiatives are active in the region. Since 2003, they have approved a total of USD 2.10 billion2 for projects in the region.
WWF: The Economic Value of Ecosystem Services in the Mekong Basin: What We Know, and What We Need to Know. The use of “off the shelf” ecosystem valuation analytical tools is not recommended. Simple, tailor-made models may be most appropriate for future work on ecosystem valuation in the Lower Mekong region.
Subregional workshop on biodiversity and finance for preparation of WGRI-4 and COP-11, Sweimah, Jordan, 18 February 2012 (provisional agenda)
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Central Asia
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Eastern Asia
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Southern Asia
Biodiversity Financial Planning in South-East Asia
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Western Asia
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Oceania
Central Asia workshop on biodiversity and finance, 14 October 2011, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Asia Regional Workshop on Biodiversity and Finance in support of the Nagoya Outcomes, 8 April 2011 - Da Lat City, Viet Nam (Workshop summary)
South-South and Triangular Cooperation in Asia-Pacific: Towards a New Paradigm in Development
PES in Asia: Trends, Lessons Learned, Best Practices, and Knowledge Gaps
Asia Regional Workshop on Compensation for Ecosystem Services
SFM Rehabilitation and Sustainable Use of Peatland Forests in South-East Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam plus Brunei and Singapore (GEF 2007)
Payment for Environmental Services

The Market for Organic Products in Asia-Pacific
Arab Environment Facility br Arab Foundations Forum (AFF)
Pacific Conservation Trust Fund (PCTF)

Asia and the Pacific
Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific (MCED), organized by UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP): Regional Strategy for Sound and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific; Regional Action Programme for Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development 1995-2000; Regional Action Programme for Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Development 2001-2005 and Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment; Regional Implementation Plan for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific 2006-2010; Seoul Initiative on Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth (Green Growth)

West Asia
Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment (CAMRE), organized by League of Arab States: The Arab Initiative on Sustainable Development (AISD)
Islamic Development Bank (IDB): Priorities within its technical cooperation programme include agricultural research and extension, crop protection, soil conservation, livestock breeding and husbandry, water management, and environmental sustainability
Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME): Action Plan for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Areas; Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution; Protocol concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency
Regional Organisation for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (PERSGA): Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment (Jeddah Convention); Action Plan for the Conservation of the Marine Environment and Coastal Areas in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC): Convention on the Conservation of Wildlife and their Natural Habitats in the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council

Central Asia
Caspian Environment Programme (CEP): Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea; Strategic Action Programme (SAP); National Caspian Action Plans
International Fund for the Aral Sea Rehabilitation (IFAS), Intergovernmental Sustainable Development Commission (ISDC), Interstate Commission for Water Coordination (ICWC): Agreement on Joint Actions for the Solution of Problems of the Aral Sea and the Aral Sea Region in 1993; Agreement on the Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection and Rational Resource Use in March 1998
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and Ministerial Meeting on Environment: Work Plan on Biodiversity in the ECO Region for the years 2007-2015

South Asia
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP)
South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 1. SAARC Summits
2. Meetings of SAARC Environment Ministers
3. SAARC Environment Action Plan
4. SAARC Coastal Zone Management Center (SCZMC)
5. SAARC Forestry Center (SFC)
6. South Asia Environment Outlook (SAEO) 2009
7. SAARC Convention on Cooperation on Environment in April 2010

East Asia
NOWPAP Intergovernmental Meeting (IGM): Action Plan for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northwest Pacific Region (NOWPAP)
Meeting of Senior Officials on Environmental Cooperation in North-East Asia: North-East Asian Subregional Programme for Environmental Cooperation (NEASPEC); Core Fund based on voluntary contribution of member countries of NEASPEC; NEASPEC subregional conservation strategy for target species
Tripartite Environment Ministers Meeting (TEMM): The Northeast Asian Conference on Environmental Cooperation (NEAC); Tripartite Environment Ministers Meeting (TEMM)

Southeast Asia
Mekong River Commission (MRC): Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin; The Mekong Programme - Regional Cooperation Programme for the Sustainable Development of Water and Related Resources in the Mekong Basin
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Environment (AMME): ASEAN Sub-regional Environmental Programmes (ASEP I, II, and III); Strategic Plan of Action on the Environment, 1999-2004 (SPAE); ASEAN Vision 2020 and the Vientiane Action Programme 2004-2010 (VAP); ASEAN Center for Biodiversity
Coordinating Body on the Seas of East Asia (COBSEA): Action Plan for the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Areas of the East Asian Region Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA): Haikou Partnership Agreement in December 2006; East Asian Seas (EAS) Congress, held every three years; East Asian Seas (EAS) Partnership Council; PEMSEA Resource Facility; Regional Partnership Fund

Pacific Islands Forum; Council of Regional Organizations of the Pacific (CROP): Annual meetings of Forum Heads of State and Government; Pacific Plan; Pacific Islands Framework for Action on Climate Change; Pacific Islands Regional Ocean Policy, Pacific Islands Action Strategy for nature Conservation, Regional Strategy for Solid Waste, Pacific Regional Action Plan on sustainable Water Management (RAP), Pacific Wastewater Policy and Framework for Action
Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP): 1986 Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the Pacific; 1976 Convention on the Conservation of Nature in the Pacific (Apia Convention); Action Plan

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme