National and international financing: Eastern European

Environmental Services Project (GEF 2012)
right to seek compensation
Domestic budget from 600,000 to 800,000 US$ per year (2007)
sectors in protection of environment and biodiversity
Tax exemptions, financial stimulation
Biodiversity Special Fund; *Fund of the Directory General of Forest and Pasture
(1999, 2007) special biodiversity fund, National Fund for Environment
The Italy – Albania Remittance Corridor: Shifting from the Physical Transfer of Cash to a Formal Money Transfer System

The budgets for conservation of forests, conservation of protected areas and reproduction and inventory of fish resources in thousands US dollars: 366.6 (1998), 372.7 (1999), 327.7 (2000), 483.4 (2001), 464.8 (2002), 496.9 (2003), 708.3 (2004), 1776.5 (2005). The state budget allots the following financing for protected areas management (AMD million): 2000 -126.2, 2001 - 260.2, 2002 – 253.8, 2003 – 302.2, 2004 -331.2, 2005 – 410.5, 2006 -367.4, 2007 – 401.6 , 2008 – 419.4. (Exchange rate - 1 USD = 304 AMD)
agriculture; forestry; industry; fishing and fisheries, education; tourism and recreation
Tax exemptions, environmental fees, special environment conservation account of the Central Bank of Armenia
Renewable Energy and Energy Saving Fund, Forest Restoration and Development Fund, Environmental Purposeful Fund, Caucasus Trust Fund
Incentives for private sector

(2014) BP has adopted an ISO 14001-compliant EMS in Azerbaijan. Some 475,9 thousand tons hydrocarbon was combusted in the BP operations in Azerbaijan in 2012 which is approximately 19% less compared with 2011. Also, 5% gas was consumed in 2012 which enabled to the combustion of relatively less overall GHG emissions together with flared gas in 2012. BP is also restoring the vegetation along the South Caucasus pipeline, with measures being implemented to restore the endangered Iris acutiloba plant. Natural habitats around the Sangachal Terminal are also actively being protected. SOCAR has similarly developed a zero waste strategy on associated gas management in the oil and gas sector.
Caucasus Protected Areas Fund (CPAF), energy efficiency funds, National Hydrometeorological Fund
Use and values of biodiversity
agriculture, forestry, fisheries, industry, construction, mining industry, energy and oil extraction, transport and tourism
State Oil Fund of the Republic of Azerbaijan

Ecobank, international ecological rent
State Environmental Fund, Ecological Fund/State Ecological Bank; *Republican and regional/local environmental funds
(1998, 2006) Taxes, compensations
Activities for the conservation of biodiversity and research and development in thousands of US dollars: 736 (2001), 1129.3 (2002), 1659.2 (2003), 2071 (2004)
spatial planning and urban development, transport and road construction, agriculture and land use, forestry and hunting, fisheries, water resources and irrigation, industry and energy, defense, tourism and recreation, education
NBSAP1998, 2010

Bosnia and Herzegovina
institutional framework
30.000 KM (Budget of Government o Federation BiH) (2005)
Ecofund, Fund for Environmental Protection, special fund for the climate change adaptation, MDG fund
Swap Opportunities

(2014) The Rural Development Program – mainly Axis 2 – Improvement of the environment and nature, includes the agroecological payments and payments related to Natura 2000 sites and the Water Framework Directive. Implementing Measure 214 “Agro-ecological payments” for the period 2008–2012, approved 8084 projects with the total sum of 50 926 457.14 euro.
(2010) Rural Development Programme
Bulgaria 2014 (additional information), including bilateral official development assistance (2013)
(2014) Based on the National Plan for Development (2007–2013) and the related National Strategic Referent Framework, the Operational programmes have been elaborated. Biodiversity issues have been integrated specifically in three of them: OP “Environment”, Rural Development Program and OP for development of the Fishery sector.
(2012) Submission
(1999) National Biodiversity Conservation Action Plan is a set of 96 activities to be carried out during the 1999-2003 period (five year), with the total cost of Lev 44.355 million, and Lev. 21.274 million has yet to be secured.
National Environmental Protection Fund, National Trust EcoFund (NTEF), Bulgarian Forest National Fund; *Concessions Cost Recovery Fund; *National Environmental Protection Fund, National Trust EcoFund
(2014) National Science Fund
(2001) Incentives
(2014) Private/market funding (euro): 29,250 (2012), 26,956 (2013)
(2014) NGOs and private donors have reported 538,395 Euro spent for the period 2012–2013.
(2014) NGOs, foundations, academia funding (euro): 90,494 (2012), 511,439 (2013).
(2014) Private/market funding (euro): 29,250 (2012), 26,956 (2013)
Biological agriculture
Cost-Benefit Analysis on the Danube Islands, Land-use options on the Danube islands
(2014) State budget (in million euros): 18.97 (2010–2011), 51.68 (2012–2013)
(2014) Central biodiversity expenditure in million euros: 15.82 (2012), 35.74 (2013)
(2012) Central government (US$ million): 14.13 (2006), 20.13 (2007), 31.65 (2008), 20.57 (2009), 14.78 (2010), 8.94 (2011)
(2010) Pilot Study on Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts: (Summary), (Tables)
(2010) 2010
forestry, game management and hunting, agriculture, fishery, water sector, economy, energetics, transport, regional development, tourism, science and education
Swap with Switzerland

Agri-environmental programme, Paying Agency for Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
Croatia 2014, including multilateral official development assistance (2006-2012)
Multiannual strategic program
(2014) Physical planning (Spatial planning), agriculture, forestry, freshwater fisheries, marine fisheries, water management, tourism, transport, energy
Participation in the European Commission study on Environmental Fiscal Reform
Permits, concessions, entrance fees, vignettes for marine vessels, 'Green taxes’ in the field of forestry
Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (only 1.16% of EPEEF total allocation for the environment protection programs for the period 2006 - 2012)
The FSC certificate of the state-owned company Croatian Forests (Hrvatske šume d.o.o.) in 2012 for sustainable and responsible management of state forests which make 78% of all forests and forest land in Croatia, was extended for the period of five years. Area under organic production is growing - from 0.8% of utilized agricultural area in 2008 to 2.4% in 2012.
Markets for green products - Green Business Support Programme
Freshwater ecosystem valuation study in the Danube basin, survey on willingness to pay
State owned water management company Croatian Waters (Hrvatske vode) prepares Water Management Plan - Annual Programme of Water Maintenance Works for the Protection Against Harmful Effects of Water.
Central and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 61.59 (2006), 65.88 (2007), 69.78 (2008), 69.97 (2009), 73.21 (2010)
Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development (HBOR )
Simple biological reproduction account
Strengthening the Institutional and Financial Sustainability of the National Protected Area System (GEF 2012)
Valuation of the Contribution of the Ecosystems of NorthernVelebit National Park and Velebit Nature Park to Economic Growth and Human Wellbeing: Croatia
Valuation of Tourism Benefits for Croatia’s Protected Areas
agriculture, forestry, hunting, freshwater fisheries, marine fisheries, use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), water management, tourism, transport, energy, mining; general inter-sectoral integration, including education, research and monitoring, public information and participation, physical planning
State subsidies
Fund for Regional Development, Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency
Forestry Advisory Service (FAS)
NBSAP2000, 2008

Czech Republic
agri-environmental subsidies
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Krkonose (Giant Mountains) National Park – a FACE project, Sumava National Park – a FACE project
Czech Republic 2014, including bilateral and multilateral development assistance, other public funds (2006-2012)
(2012) Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
(2014) Concept of Foreign Development Cooperation of the Czech Republic in 2010 - 2017: mentioned biodiversity conservation
ecological sustainable tourism, environmental education, financial support mechanisms
(2012) Feed-in tariffs for the generation of energy from waste incineration and landfill gas, reform of water pricing in the Czech Republic
(2011) Environmental Tax, (Summary)
(2004) Analysis of Public Subsidies, case studies
(2006) Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects - Reform of Industrial Zone Subsidies in the Czech Republic
(2005) Sectoral subsidies, environmentally related taxes, green tax reform, pricing of municipal services, charges
(2008) National Subsidy Programmes, European Subsidy Programmes
State Environmental Fund, National Trust EcoFund (NTEF); *Czech State Environment Fund, Annual report; *Czech State Environmental Fund
trade in endangered species
(2005) private environmental expenditure
(2014) Czech Bioplatform: Review on industry, business and biodiversity assessment in the Czech Republic
(2005) as a donor
certification of environmentally sound tourism, organic farming
Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: Czech Republic (2007)
financial reserve and liability insurance
(2014) Integrated assessment of ecosystem services: The resulting average value of ecosystem services in the Czech Republic represents 1.5 the current gross national product
Directly related central biodiversity expenditure in millions of Czech crowns (CZK): 1879.16 (2006), 1285.91 (2007), 1100.04 (2008), 1510.08 (2009), 1986.22 (2010), 1703.33 (2011), 1426.95 (2012)
Report2005, Report2009
public expenditure for nature conservation and landscape protection, support for non-productive agricultural functions
(2005) foreign direct investment, export credit and the environment

The subsidy for the management of semi-natural communities paid for semi-natural communities located on Natura 2000 areas. This is an agro-environmental subsidy. Subsidy for the management of wooded meadows is 238 EUR/ha per year; for other semi-natural communities it is 186 EUR/ha per year. In case of subsidy for the management of semi-natural habitats for one site, other Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) area-based payments cannot be taken. In 2012, management support for 25,000 ha was paid in total of 4.4 million euros. The total budget for 2007–2013 is 26.8 million euros. Natura 2000 subsidy for private forestland is paid to compensate for nature conservation restrictions of forest management for lost revenue. Subsidy rate is 110 EUR/ha per year, or 60 EUR/ha per year, depending on the extent of the restrictions. In 2012, subsidies were paid for 55,000 ha in total of 3.7 million euros. The total budget for 2007–2013 is 25.5 million euros. Woodland key habitats on private land are also funded from the state budget. A landowner can enter into a 20-year notarial agreement, under which the compensation is paid to the landowner for loss of earnings. As of 01.01.2014, the area of woodland key habitats on commercial forest area was 8,900 ha, about 5% of key habitats on private land were covered with key habitat protection agreements and payments were made for 148,000 euros (in 2007: 54,000 euros). The protection of woodland key habitats on private land is funded from the state budget. In 2013. the amount of payment per hectare increased by 21%. Natura 2000 subsidies for agricultural land are paid to compensate for nature conservation restrictions. Subsidy rate is 32 EUR/ha per year. In 2012 subsidies paid for 23,000 ha in 0.8 million euros. The total budget for 2007–2013 is 8.7 million euros, and it is paid in addition to other area-based CAP subsidies. For endangered breeds of livestock a total of 0.4 million euros were paid for the period 2004–2006, for the period of 2007–2013, the total budget for endangered breeds of livestock and the cultivation of local varieties of plants was 4.4 million euros. Environmental subsidies were paid in the sum of 80 million euros from the RDP budget during the period of 2004–2006. During the period of 2007–2013, the preservation of environment and locality was funded in the sum of 328 million euros (or 35%) from the RDP budget. Since 2008 Natura payments have increased 6.7 times (payments for private forest land were added). Payments for semi-natural habitats management have increased 1.6 times since 2008 due to the increase of the managed area. During the period 2008–2013 different environmental subsidies amounted to 35% of financing under the RDP. Compared to 2008 the environmental subsidies payable under the MAK have increased 1.3 times.
Estonia 2014, including bilateral official development assistance (2010-2011)
State Budget Strategy 2011–2014. State Budget Strategy 2014–2017 (approved 25.04.2013) and principles for using the EU structure Funds. With regard to the nature conservation, the state budget prioritizes the protection of natural habitats and valuable landscapes and ecosystems as a whole. Protection of natural values, preservation and restoration of endangered species and habitats, management of semi-natural communities and control of alien and problematic species has to be ensured. The goal of 2014 is the preservation and improving of the status and getting a complete overview of the status of all species and habitats.
(2014) Central and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 149.58 (2011)
(2014) The Environmental Programme supports 10 environmental areas. Nature Conservation Programme is directly related with biodiversity but also other programs have a greater or smaller impact on biodiversity –water management, waste management, environmental management, forestry, fisheries, environmental awareness, protection of atmospheric air, maritime and ground source programs. During 2008–2013, 234 million euros were allocated from the environmental program, 31 million euros of the amount was allocated via the Nature Conservation Programme. In 2013, 838 projects were supported for 37 million euros, including from the Nature Conservation Programme 141 applications for 5.9 million euros. As of 25.09.2013, the EIC has given loans with an intended purpose for 113 clients, with the loan portfolio of 103 million euros. Loan focus has been directed at local authorities and water companies for the development of water management projects.
Submission 2012
national development plans, environment, economy, communication, transportation, housing and communal services, agriculture and primary sector (fisheries, forestry), tourism, education and science, health, social care and youth, regional development and regional policies, defense and security, foreign policy
(2014) Occurrence of subsidies harmful to biodiversity is analysed in SEA-s prepared for sectorial development plans and, if needed in EIA reports of planned activities. Through Environmental Investment Centre (EIC), subsidies are paid out from the national Environmental Programme, which collects money from environmental charges (part of the environmental charges are directed for paying environmental loans). According to the State Statistical Office, 484.3 million euros of environmental charges were collected to the state. Since the implementation of the ecological tax reform in 2005, the share of the environmental taxes in gross domestic product has increased from 2.3% to 2.8% by 2012, exceeding the EU average share of environmental taxes in 2008. Environmental Charges Act was adopted in 2006. Environmental charges make 2.8 percent of GDP. Money from the environmental is directed back into the environment through the EIC. Environmental charges and the environmental subsidies that are directed back to protect the biodiversity are expected to increase significantly from 2016.
(2012) Feed-in tariff for electricity generated by cogeneration in Estonia
Use of Environmental Tax Statistics for Monitoring of Environmental Tax Reform in Estonia: Summary, Final report
Ecological tax reform
Environmental Investment Centre (EIC); *Estonian Environmental Fund; *Environmental Fund
Skills for green jobs
(2014) NGOs. foundations, academia (2011): 1.15 million euro.
(2012) Counting non-governmental organization financing (2010): 0.64 million euro
(2014) Private, market funding (2011)
(2012) Counting private sector financing
(2008) Private Forests
Development plan for collection and conservation of genetic resources of agricultural plants for 2007-2013and for 2014-2020
The demand for protected forest by working age population of Estonia (2011); public benefits from different agricultural production types (2012); overview of ecosystem services and their economic value (2012); assessing the economic value of bogs, on the example of Kuresoo bog) (2012); assessing the economic value of forest, on the example of Järvselja nature conservation area (2013); study about changes in the land use, how it affects ecosystems services provided by nature and how to take it into account than planning land use (2015); socio-economic analysis of The Baltic sea - project in work; mapping and assessing of water related ecosystem services (sea, rivers, lakes) (starts 2014)
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
(2012) Submission


Environmental Expenditure in the NIS: Georgian Country Report
The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (hunting and fishing administration, programs), protected areas (administration, programs), forestry (administration, programs) in thousand US dollars: 4594.43 (1997), 2111.67 (1998), 925.32 (1999), 148.53 (2000), 192.51 (2001), 160.53 (2002), 176.49 (2003), 246.37 (2004), 668.04 (2005)
forestry, agriculture, fishery
Fees, Taxes
Caucasus Protected Areas Fund (CPAF), Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund, Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies; *Draft Georgian Revolving Water Fund
Bank of Georgia
Total Economic Valuation of Georgian Forest
Debt-for-Environment Swap in Georgia:Pre-Feasibility Study and Institutional Options
Swap Opportunities

The National Rural Development Strategy 2012-2020 sets a target to maintain financial schemes that support agricultural biodiversity and to revise harmful subsidies.
National Agri-Environmental Programme (NAEP)
national agri-environmental programme, payments for Natura 2000
(2014) In March 2014 the Government adopted the International Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid Strategy of Hungary for the period of 2014-2020.
(2012) Submission 2012
Assessment of the value of biodiversity
Loss of Value of the Szigetközwetland due to the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Barrage System Development: Application of Benefit Transfer in Hungary
Financial resources from the Ministry of Environment and Water and Other budgetary resources (million HUF): 3395 (1998), 3912 (1999), 4998 (2000), 6388 (2001), 7712 (2002), 8950 (2003), 7404 (2004), 5992 (2005)
Public expenditure on nature conservation
EPEA in Hungary - Final report (2005), by European Commission
agriculture, forestry, fisheries, regional development, land use planning, transport, energy, tourism, education
(2012) Feed-in tariffs for the generation of energy from waste incineration and landfill gas in Hungary
(2011) Environmental Taxes in Hungary
(2008) Environmental load charge, entrance fees, environmentally harmful subsidies, subsidies for environmental investment, environmentally related taxes, green public procurement
(1998) Fiscal innovations
Central Environmental Protection Fund (KKA), Regional Development Fund, Water Management Fund; *Central Environmental Protection Fund
Hungarian Environmental Partnership Foundation
public work programme at the national park directorates, Environment and employment, Trade and endangered species
Technical Assistance to Business
(2008) ODA and the environment
Area of organic farming and the number of organic farmers between 2005-2012 . The National Action Plan for the Development of Ecological Farming 2014-2020 adopted in January 2014 aims to integrate environmental risk mitigating measures into ecological farming, to support biodiversity conservation measures and to protect beneficial living organisms (e.g. non-cultivated edges and bands, sowing edge plants for providing nutrients to pollinating insects). It also determines the areas where different aspects of ecological farming can be integrated with other agricultural programs, like gene conservation, backyard gardening, habitat management, etc.
Certification costs and managerial skills under different organic certification schemes - Selected Case Studies: Hungary (2007)

Compensation for economic loss
The direct budget allocations for the nature protection are approx. 2 M euro annually. Indirect allocations through the Latvian Environmental protection fund are 0.5 M euro annually.
EPEA in Latvia - Final report (2005), by European Commission
environment, economy, communication, transportation, agriculture, forestry, tourism, education and science, defense
Pilot Study on environmental taxes in Latvia in 2007, (Tables), (Summary)
Natural resources tax, tax exemption
Latvian Environmental Protection Fund; *Environmental Investment Fund

Agri-environment payments
In the period of 2004-2006 in the frame of the “Action Programme of Cohesion encouraging for 2004-2006” 39 mil. litas were allocated for protection of biodiversity and landscape (75% EU funds and 25% from the State budget) and 11 mil. litas were allocated for coastal zone management (75% EU funds and 25% from the State budget). In the frame of the State programme “Environmental Protection Promotion Programme” during the 2006-2008 year period 1,5 mil. litas were allocated for protection and management of biodiversity and landscape (including scientific studies of protected species, enforcement of control of use of nature resources, public information).
EPEA in Lithuania -Final report (2005), by European Commission
agriculture and rural development, fisheries, transport, tourism, energy, education and information
Pilot Project on Environmental Taxes
Natural resources tax, pollution charges
Forest Fund; *Environmental Investment Fund

Energy Efficiency and Energy Efficiency Fund
Tourism Development Strategy

Agro-Environmental Programme
Rural Development Programme
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Wroclaw – a FACE project; Case studies for bundled environmental services: National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Poland 2017, Poland's net official development assistance was US$442 million in 2015, managed by Department of Development Cooperation at Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Poland 2014, (additional information), including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2010)
2007-2013 funding needs: 281.1 million PLN
Funding in NBSAP2003, 2006
(2014) use of environmental criteria in public procurement (green procurement)
(2012) Preferential treatment for the hard coal mining industry, subsidies for the construction of waste incineration plants in Poland
(2001, 2005, 2009) Fees, fines, taxes, credits
(2003) charges, fines, subsidies, tax relief, greening of sectoral taxation and price signals, cost recovery of environmental services
Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management, Ecofund Foundation, Foundation for Eastern Carpathian Biodiversity Conservation; *EcoFund; *National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management, EcoFund, Cracow Provincial Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
Counting environmental funds' contribution
Legal and Tax Policy Environment
Private Sector Engagement
trade and endangered species
(2014) NGOs, foundation, and academia biodiversity expenditure in million US dollars: 37.54 (2006), 30.78 (2007), 54.34 (2008), 73.74 (2009), 72.68 (2010)
Forest Stewardship Council, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, sustainable agriculture and organic farming
Certification in forestry and agriculture
(2014) valuation of economic benefits from the use of forests, Evaluation of Non-Productive Forest Functions, Assessment of the Recreational Value of the White Stork in Stork Villages, Valuation of Public Greenery on the Example of Tree Stands in the City of Lodz, development and implementation of valuation mechanisms for biodiversity resources and ecosystem services in such a way that they become a permanent element of prosperity assessment and national statistics and serve as considerable premises in current economic decisions, on the level of shaping sector policies, economic decisions made by entrepreneurs, or individual consumption patterns.
Valuation of street trees in Lodz city center
(2014) Central, state and local biodiversity expenditure in US dollars: 65,859,418 (2006), 690,916,980 (2007), 615,754,573 (2008), 600,869,598 (2009), 579,213,233 (2010)
Submission 2012
2001, 2005, 2009
environmental expenditure
EPEA in Poland - Final report (2005), by European Commission
forest management, agriculture, fishery, and tourism
Polish National Environmental Protection Fund with Finland, EcoFund Foundation with France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, USA
Commercial debt swaps

Republic of Moldova
Moldova submission on innovative financial mechanisms
Moldova Soil Conservation Project
Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources (MENR), Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry (MAFI), State forestry agency "Moldsilva", Ministry of Local Public Administration (MLPA), local public authorities (LPA), agriculture, forestry, rural development, trade, industry, health, research and education
(2001, 2005) Economic instruments
National Ecological Fund, Energy Efficiency Fund, National Fund for Renewable Energy, *National Environmental Fund, Chisinau Municipal Environmental Fund; *National and Local Environmental Funds
Ecological agricultural and food products
(2014) Value of ecosystem services in tourism, forestry, agriculture, fishing, water supply, climate change and natural disaster mitigation in Moldovais estimated at just under $21,986 million (in 2011). The quantified value of ecosystem services (taking only few sectors into consideration) equated to some 41% of GDP. In 2011, both, the public and the private sector benefited from the values of ecosystem services. For example, for eco-tourism sector, 13 % of the value was earned by the national budget, while 78 % (4.6 million USD) was earned by private enterprises. In agriculture sector, only 11% of the benefits were earned by the budget (425 million USD) while the private sector earned 86%.
(2004) Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting, by Statistics Denmark
Environmental and Natural Resources Management Expenditure in the Republic of Moldova
2001, 2009

Case studies for watershed protection markets: Paying for improved water quality
The sums allocated for biodiversity conservation represented about 1.5-2% of the total sum available for environmental protections, representing about 1.8 million USD every year starting in 1994 until 2000
ecological sustainable tourism
(2013) Environmental Accounts, Final Report; Standard tax tables
(2001, 2005, 2009) Taxes
Fund for the Environment
Ecological sustainable tourism
(2004) Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis, by FAO

Russian Federation
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Talan - payments by an ecotourism company for biodiversity protection; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: RUSAFOR Saratov Afforestation Project – USIJI, Vologda reforestation project – USIJI, Energy Carbon Fund
Paying for Results: WCS experience with direct incentives for conservation - Linking community development and biodiversity conservation in the Russian Far East
Russia Academy of Sciences submission on innovative financial mechanisms
Impacts of economic transition, priorities, economic valuation and its importance, national green accounting, macroeconomic measures, specific economic measures and capacity building
Environmental Expenditure in the NIS: Russian Country Report
financing of state natural reserves and national parks in Russia in millions rubles: 1162.8 (2003), 1447.4 (2004), 1270.4 (2005), 1680.7 (2006), 2084.3 (2007)
forestry, fisheries, rural development and agriculture, development of tourism, research programs, system of environmental education, the media, social organizations, programs of the fuel and energy complex, mining and oil and gas industries
(1998) Subsidies in World Fisheries: A Reexamination – Russia
(1997) Reforming Energy and Transport Subsidies: Environmental and Economic Implications - Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Russian Energy Subsidies
Ecological Privatization Fund, Development and Environment Foundation, Far Eastern Biodiversity Conservation Fund; *Federal Environmental Fund, National Pollution Abatement Facility, Novgorod Regional Environmental Fund
CAF Russia, Dynasty Foundation
Linking Economic Development and Biodiversity Conservation in the Russian Far East through Tiger Friendly Certification
Organic farming in private protected area, Russia
A new Tweed from “Forest Sheep“ Wool Quality production and the use of a sheep genetic resource for extensive pasturing
Experimental Licensing Contract between the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Selections of Fruit Cultures (Licensor) and the Foreign Fruit Selection Organization, France (Licensee)
Scientific and Technical Cooperation Agreement between the Horticultural Science Research Institute (Russia) and the All-Russian Plant Science Research Institute
(2013) Vnesheconombank (VEB)
Reserve Fund and the National Wealth Fund of the Russian Federation, Russian Direct Investment Fund, National Welfare Fund, Russia Reserve Fund

Organic farming
(2010) Fund for Environmental Protection, Energy Efficiency Fund
agriculture, forestry, fishery, hunting, water resource management, energy, mining and industry, tourism, and traffic
The level of environmental investments between 2001 and 2005 was about 0.3% of GDP

agri-environment payments, financial compensation for restriction on land use imposed by the Nature Act and for damage to livestock caused by protected species
2001, 2009
public expenditure on nature and biodiversity management, environmental expenditure
EPEA in Slovakia - Final report (2005), by European Commission
Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy including National Sustainable Development Strategy of the Slovak Republic (NSSD) and State Tourism Policy of the Slovak Republic (ŠPCR), Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, and Ministry of Culture
(2005, 2009) Tax exemption, incentives
(2011) environmentally harmful subsides, environmentally related taxes, fees, fines, property tax reduction on land used for nature
Environmental Fund, Foundation for Eastern Carpathian Biodiversity Conservation; *State Environmental Fund
Association of Slovak Community Foundations
(2007)Report on the State of Slovak Foundations - 2006 Data Analysis, by Slovak Donors’ Forum
deterioration fee for destruction of protected species and habitats (by infrastructure development
organic farming
(2011) corporate environmental responsibility
(2011) export credit

2017 OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Slovenia 2017. This review assesses the performance of Slovenia, including looking at how Slovenia might increase the impact of its aid through a tighter thematic focus and geographic footprint, a stronger focus on results and better mainstreaming of gender and environment across its development co-operation.

Slovenia 2014, including multilateral official development assistance (2006-2012)

(2014) The use of methods for economic evaluation of ecosystem services in protected areas
Direclty related state biodiversity expenditure in millions euros: 8.595 (2007), 11.87 (2008), 109.434 (2009), 9.977 (2010), 11.675 (2011), 9.356 (2012)

(2014) A new budget line "Implementation of biodiversity goals" has been established and adopted in December 2013 in the state budget for 2014 – 2015

Rural Development Programme

(2012) private environmental expenditure, corporate environmental responsibility, public-private partnership for preserving natural and cultrual heritage
Trade in endangered species
(2012) ODA and environment

(2012) Incomplete producer responsibility for WEEE in Slovenia
(2012) taxation policies and the environment, environment-related subsidies, green public procurement

expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection, public environmental expenditure

Vesna Vidic - Environmental Fund of the Republic of Slovenia


Vesna Vidic - Environmental Fund of the Republic of Slovenia
Data collection on Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts
agriculture, forestry, hunting, fisheries, water management, industry and energy sector, transport (road transport, greenhouse-gas emissions), tourism, spatial management, monitoring, education, training and communication (partnership)
Improvements and updgrading of the existing Environmental Accounts (Environmentally related taxes)
Mandatory forest management plans, public advisory institution and financial incentives
Agricultural Development Fund, Water Fund;
(2000) Slovenian Environmental Development Fund
(2000) Environmental Development Fund

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
National Master Plan of the Republic of Macedonia, State Budget Strategy 2008-2012, Sustainable Macedonia 21 (SM21), Coalition agreements of the government, Sectoral development plan 2007–2010, Research and preservation, Sectoral development plan 2008–2012, Strategy for accomplishment of basis for population policy 2006-2015, Development Plan for Support to Civic Initiative 2010, Economy: Long-term Public Fuel, Energy Sector Development Plan 2006-2015, The Macedonian Communication Strategy for Environment (2006-2020), The Public Transport Development Programme 2008-2015, The Rural Development Plan 2008-2015, National Fisheries Development Plan 2006– 2010, National Forestry Development Plan 2006-2010, National Hunting Activities Development Plan 2006–2010, The National Tourism Development Plan 2006-2020, The Development Plan for e-learning 2008-2015, The National Education Strategy 2006- 2015; health, social care and youth; regional development and regional policies
Fund for afforestation of bare areas, Environmental Fund, Fund for national and regional roads

Legal and Tax Policy Environment
Environmental Expenditure Data Collection and Reporting Systems in Ukraine
Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries: 10 mln USD /year (core budget 2007)
forestry, land use, agriculture, fisheries, education and awareness-raising
(2003, 2007) Tax exemption, incentives
National Environmental Protection Fund; *27 environmental funds; *State Environmental Protection Fund of Ukraine; *State Environmental Protection Fund

Black Sea Trade and Development Bank (BSTDB)
Subregional workshop on biodiversity and finance for preparation of WGRI-4 and COP-11, Tirana, Albania, Friday, 30 March 2012 (provisional agenda)
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Eastern Europe
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Southern Europe
Caucasus Trustr Fund
Eastern Europe Regional Workshop on Biodiversity and Finance in support of the Nagoya Outcomes, 25 March 2011 - Kiev, Ukraine (Statement en, Workshop summary en)
IUCN: Indicator on Funding to Biodiversity: Measuring Expenditure for Biodiversity, IUCN Programme Office for the Southern Caucasus. Data are collected individually for the states of the southern Caucasus separately, i.e. for Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Areas include: development and management of protected areas; species conservation; habitat conservation; capacity building; awareness raising/Education; research/monitoring.
Promoting Payments for Environmental Services (PES) and Related Sustainable Financing Schemes in the Danube Basin Bulgaria, Romania (GEF 2009)
Using economic incentives to conserve CITES-listed species: A scoping study on ITQs for sturgeon in the Caspian Sea (2004)

Eastern Europe
HELCOM: Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area (Helsinki Convention); HELCOM Ministerial Meeting
Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Black Sea Commission or BSC): Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution (Bucharest Convention); Black Sea Biodiversity and Landscape Conservation Protocol to the Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution
European Union: Environmental Action Programme (EAP); EU bird directive; EU habitat directive
Council of the Pan European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy: Pan-European Biological and Landscape Diversity Strategy (PEBLDS); ‘Biodiversity in Europe’ conference series; Ministerial conference ‘Environment for Europe’; Pan European 2010 Biodiversity Implementation Plan
Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC): REC Strategy 2006-2010

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme