National financing: Latin American and Caribbean

Antigua and Barbuda
Integration with Climate Action
Antigua and Barbuda
Direct and Indirect Values
Budget: 834,000USD (2007)
physical planning, public sector budgetary process, environmental education
Public Sector Budgetary Process and incentives
Forestry fund, Emergency fund
Governance, trade, consumption and technology
Public sector investment programme (PSIP) process offers a focus on achieving predetermined goals including biodiversity targets (where government programs and projects make up over 50% of development)
Swap Opportunities

Inter-American Development Bank: Norte Grande Electricity Transmission Program - Northeast Section (NEA). The NGETP developed and executed a substantial reforestation program that surpasses Argentine regulatory policies for electricity transmission projects. The total area affected by NEA vegetation clearing during the construction period was approximately 2,750 Ha; of this, approximately 90% was located on private property that had been previously disturbed by agricultural activities and 10% in densely forested areas. To compensate the loss of vegetation, the project significantly increased the area of prime habitat through the reforestation program, planting approximately 600,000 endemic species trees. It is estimated that through the reforestation program approximately 13,800,000 tons of CO2 are annually sequestered.
Establishment of Incentives for the Conservation of Ecosystem Services of Global Significance (GEF 2008)
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: La Plata/Fontana, Patagonia
(2003) Annual Awards to be granted by national authorities or by an ad-hoc committee, to recognize those individuals or legal entities that have made outstanding philanthropic and / or sponsorship of activities of biodiversity conservation in the country.
South-South and Triangular Cooperation of Argentina, Argentine Fund for horizontal Cooperation (, Ministry of foreign Affairs, international trade and Worship, Secretariat of Coordination and international Cooperation, General Directorate of international Cooperation
International Coordination and Cooperation Secretary
Organic agriculture and the law – Argentina (2012)
Environmental compensation fund
University of Arizona and Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria/Argentina
Measuring Productivity in Unstable and Natural Resources Dependent Economies: Argentina
Alternative methods for estimating resource rent and depletion cost: the case of Argentina’s YPF
Conservation could save commercial fishery in Argentina
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
national organizations, provincial agencies, research and education centers, nongovernmental organizations; biodiversity and education
Fund for sustainable use of wildlife, Fondo para las Americas, Fondo Argentino de Carbono (FAC), Fondo Nacional de Incentivo Docente, Fondo para Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, national environmental fund
Fondo para las Américas-Argentina: swap with USA

Environmental Accounting
1999, 2005, 2011
tourism plan, agricultural plan
National Conservation Fund, Protected Areas Trust Fund; *The Bahamas National Trust

(2012) The enabling environment for sustainable enterprises in Barbados
Economic Valuation
Tourism Plan, Agricultural Plan, land use planning and decision-making

Management and Protection of Key Biodiversity Areas (GEF 2011)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: The Belize Protected Areas Conservation Trust – protected areas, Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area - land acquisition & private protected area; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Rio Bravo Conservation Project; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Toledo Ecotourism Association - package holiday, Belize Audubon Society - protected area ecotourism & entrance permits
(1998) Privately owned protected areas
Allocations for Fiscal Year 2005-2006 for Forestry Department - US$800,000, Agriculture Department – US$2.6 million, Fisheries Department – US$420,000
forest act, forests (mangrove protection) regulations, fisheries act, Belize tourism policy, national lands act
Entrance fees
Protected Areas Conservation Trust, Mesoamerican Reef Fund (MAR Fund); *PACT
Swap with USA

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Bolivia 2014, submission II
The role of collective action in the conservation of biological diversity, by Diego Pacheco, Head of the Bolivian delegation at the CBD COP12. COP 12 event "Scaling Up Biodiversity Finance: - Outcomes of the Quito II Dialogue on the Value of Biodiversity for Mainstreaming, Financial Mechanisms, and Safeguards"
Bolivia submission on preliminary reporting framework
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Logging rights purchase, Debt for nature swap; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Noel Kempff Climate Action Project; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Bermejo River - watershed protection contracts
Paying for ecosystem services
Selling two environmental services: In-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia
Bees for Water – Bolivia
Noel Kempff Climate Action
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Stoian, D., 2003. “Making the Best of Two Worlds: Rural and Peri-Urban Livelihood Options Sustained by Non-Timber Forest Products from the Bolivian Amazon.” Paper presented at conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests, and Biodiversity, Bonn, May 12–23, 2003. In an urban area of northern Bolivia, it was found that more than half the residents participated in one way or another in the Brazil nut and palm heart industries; members of the poorest income group were most dependent on this source of livelihood, obtaining almost half their income from it.
Fair deals for watershed services in Bolivia (2007)
Compensation for Hydrological Environmental Services in Los Negros Cloud Forest (2006)
Rapid Hydrological Analysis of the Los Negros Watershed in support of a Compensation-for-Watershed Services (CWS) Mechanism
National Environmental Fund, Fundación para el Desarrollo del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas (FUNDESNAP), Fundación “Protección y Uso Sostenible del Medio Ambiente” (Fundación PUMA), Enterprise of the Americas Fund, Fondo Nacional de Adaptación, Fondo de Fideicomiso para la Reducción de Riesgos y Atención de Desastres y Emergencias (FORADE); *FUNDESNAP (doc), (ppt); *PUMA (doc), (ppt); ; *National Fund for Forest Development (FONDOBOSQUE)
Vice Ministerio de Inversión Pública y Financiamiento Externo- Cooperación Internacional
Cupuazu: pulp production and commercialization
Removing Obstacles to Direct Private-Sector Participation in In-situ Biodiversity Conservation (GEF 2002)
NBSAP2001, National Conservation Finance Strategy
FUNDESNAP/SERNAP with Germany, swaps with Switzerland, USA
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Commercial bank debt (Conservation International)
Commercial debt buy back


OECD: Public Procurement in Chile: Policy Options for Efficient and Inclusive Framework Agreements. According to the OECD data, public procurement in Chile accounted for almost 7% of GDP in 2008. In 2013, OECD countries spent, on average, 12.1% of GDP on public procurement, translating into an average of 28.4% of the total government expenditure, compared to an average level of 29.4% in 2009.
Sustainable Development in the Chilean Banking System. UNE Finance Initiative, 2016. 91% of the banks surveyed stated that they are adhering to some type of external code of conduct (environmental, social or corporate governance) such as Global Compact, Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) or the Equator Principles, among others. 73% of the banks surveyed reported that they have marketed some kind of green financial product, and 55% of banks have financed products and / or activities to mitigate climate change (i.e. renewable energies). 100% of the surveyed banks report that among the most significant obstacles to promoting the integration of environmental and social criteria are the lack of training/knowledge to promote green markets, environmental and social practices, and/or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 72% of banks consider that the lack of clear signals from the country’s financial, environmental and economic regulators is one of the main factors slowing the adoption of sustainable development practices.
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Private protected areas; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Water share trading and payments for watershed protection
Emissions trading schemes
Banco Estado (BE)
Voluntary offset in mining
Spending on renewable natural resource issues and biodiversity in approximately USD35.208 million for 2002 and USD25.39 for 2003, representing a 20.21% and a 20.01% respectively of total environmental expenditure. The 2009 Budget, provides resources for the protection of the environment-through CONAMA-by 19,870 million pesos (approximately U.S. $ 38 million), which is a real increase of 9.5% over 2008
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. Copper contributes 22 percent of fiscal earnings in Chile.
Early Attempts to Develop Access and Benefit-Sharing Regulations
privately protected areas, privatization of water utilities, corporate environmental performance
trade and environment (strategic environmental assessment of trade agreements)
public sector investment and national investment system
environmental expenditure and financing
taxation of road fuel, water subsidies, environment-related subsidies, entrance fees, subsidies to afforestation, trading in water rights, trading in air pollutant emission permits, individual transferable fishing quotas
International Cooperation Agency of Chile
University of Arizona and Pontifica Universidad Catolica de Chile/Chile
The Value of Chilean Biodiversity: Economic, Environmental and Legal Considerations
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Cuentas Ambientales del Recurso Agua en Chile (1999), by Comision Nacional Del Medio Ambiente
agriculture, forestry, rural development, fisheries and aquaculture, mining, education, health, tourism, finance, commerce, industry
CONAMA Environmental Fund (FAC), Fund of the Americas, Competitive Fund, Agricultural Research Fund (FIA), National Fund for Technology and Production (FONTEC), Fisheries Research Fund (FIP), SAG Fund, National Fund for Regional Development (FNDR)
Public Private Partnership
Timberline Gestion de Recursos Naturales; limited-liability business partnership between Lonko1 and Timberline
Adaptive co-management for conservation of the Llancahue watershed in Southern Chile
Fishery ITQs
Fiscal Responsibility Funds, Social and Economic Stabilization Fund, Chile Pension Reservation Fund
Swap with USA

Climate Change Adaptation and Financial Protection: Synthesis of Key Findings from Colombia and Senegal, by Gisela Campillo, Michael Mullan, Lola Vallejo, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 120, OECD Publishing, Paris. The 2010-2011 La Niña floods led to significant reforms to the management of natural hazards in Colombia. The floods caused damages of USD 6 billion and affected 3.2 million people nationally, while some regions experienced losses equivalent to 15% of their GDP. Following the 2010-11 floods, the Finance Ministry (MHCP) issued a Disaster Risk Finance and Insurance (DRFI) policy strategy in 2013, which established a guiding framework for implementing a three-pronged approach to managing the fiscal consequences of natural disasters. The elements of this are: 1. Improving the evidence base on the fiscal consequences of natural disasters, 2. Developing a comprehensive strategy for the financial management of natural disasters, 3. Insuring public assets against catastrophic risks. These elements have been supplemented by capacity building at the central and sub-national level. Additionally, a long-term operative plan will support implementation of the DRFI policy strategy. Financial protection tool: Insurance mechanisms (Insurance of public assets: 4G roads insurance and insurance of public assets, Climate-sensitive insurance), Catastrophe bonds (CAT BOND/Pacific Alliance initiative), Post-disaster credit /Contingent credit (World Bank Cat DDO/Adaptation Fund), Savings or reserve funds (National Fund for DRM/Adaptation Fund), Humanitarian relief and compensation payments (Government support for disaster losses: emergency assistance)
Colombia 2014
Fifth national report: Sistemas Silvopastoriles, Manejo de Ecosistemas y Pago por Servicios Ambientales (2002-2008), Reglamentación del artículo 111 de la Ley 99 de 1993 y pago por servicios ambientales
Gestión de las áreas protegidas frente al cambio climático, Estrategia de Cambio Climático del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Naturales, Estrategia Nacional de Reducción de Emisiones por Deforestación y Degradación de los Bosques – REDD
La Cuenta Experimental de Ecosistemas como aporte a la Política Pública Ambiental Colombiana; Inclusión de los servicios ecosistémicos en las cuentas nacionales. Cuentas Ambientales
Programa de Sostenibilidad Financiera para la Gestión Integral del Recurso Hídrico
Estrategia de compensaciones por pérdida de biodiversidad; Estrategia Nacional de Compensaciones por Pérdida de Biodiversidad y su Listado Nacional de Factores de Compensación para Ecosistemas Naturales Terrestres
Compras públicas sostenibles
Áreas protegidas en predios privados, Alianza estratégica público-privada Naturalmente Colombia, Más de 100 acuerdos públicos – privados – comunitarios incrementando la gobernanza y gobernabilidad en el manejo de los recursos naturales
Incorporación de la biodiversidad en el sector cafetero en Colombia
Colombian National Protected Areas Conservation Trust Fund LAC (GEF 2005), Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Dry Ecosystems to Guarantee the Flow of Ecosystem Services and to Mitigate the Processes of Deforestation and Desertification (GEF 2012), Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Palm Cropping in Colombia with an Ecosystem Approach (GEF 2010), Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Sustainable Cattle Ranching (GEF 2008)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: ECOFUNDO –protected areas, Conservation coffee; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Valle delCauca - land acquisition and land management contracts, National watershed management contracts, Compoalegre Users Association - land acquisition
Forestry project for the basin of Chinchina river (PROCUENCA)
Commercial (re)afforestation in Magdalena Bajo
Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project – Costa Rica, Colombia and Nicaragua
Linking People and Nature through Watershed Conservation in the East Cauca Valley, Colombia
National Strategy for Environmental Services Payment
NBSAP1996, 2012, Colombia submission on funding needs
Environmental compensation
Compensation for the deterioration of Biodiversity Projects Subject to Environmental Licensing
Bioprospect under Decision 391
Attempt to Bioprospect in Colombia (MMA –BioAndes)
Access and Exchange of Genetic Resources
Benefit Sharing in Practice : Ecoflora
Economic Analysis and Valuation
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
(2014) The percentage share of the environmental sector was 0.71% in 1998, 0.27% in 2009, and 0.39% in 2013
Enviornmental expenditure in millions of 2002 pesos: 201.811 (1995), 182.686 (1996), 108.888 (1997), 66.129 (1998), 59.637 (1999), 54.734 (2000), 59.079 (2001), 64.561 (2002), 43.045 (2003)
Timber discounts for reforestation
Colombia Water Tax
How Well has Colombia's Wastewater Discharge Fee Program Worked and Why?
Economic Incentives for Micro-Watershed Management
Tax exemptions
BioTrade Fund, Ecofondo, Natural Heritage Fund, Fund for Environmental Action and Childhood (FPAA), Colombian National Protected Areas Conservation Trust Fund; *FPAA (doc), (ppt), (Evaluation); *National Environmental Fund, Environmental Fund for the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
Business partnership between Nativa (Colombia) and Cosmetic Valley (France)
Diaspora Philanthropy: The Colombia Experience
Association of Oil Foundations
Colombia’s Presidential Agency of International Cooperation
Alas de Colomnbia (Colombian Wings): breeding of native butterflies
Market creation and promotion for bio-products
USA-Colombia bilateral agreement in the framework of the Initiative for the Americas
ECOFONDO Corporation with Canada, swap with USA
Bancóldex S.A.
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. A user charge equivalent to 3 percent of revenues from hydropower and electricity companies was introduced in Colombia for forest watershed services as a way to provide resources for watershed conservation.

Costa Rica
World Bank: The Global Partnership on Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services. Although there are abundant water resources, they are not being used efficiently: 57% of piped water is lost by distributors, 54% of water supplied is not billed, 51% of irrigated water is lost. Before forest accounts, the forest contribution to the economy was based on the value of timber extraction and estimated at 0.1% to 0.2% of GDP. Now, forest accounts also measure non-timber products such as nuts and medicines, and show that forests contribute 10 to 20 times more to GDP—2%, or close to $1 billion. These numbers do not reflect the role of forests in Costa Rica’s ecotourism industry.
Mainstreaming biodiversity, The Costa Rican case. Carlos Manuel Rodríguez, December 2016. Biodiversity expenditure: average 0.5% of GDP for 2010-2014, or US$250 million per year. Funding needs: 0.18% of GDP per year for next 10/15 years.
Costa Rica submission on Resource mobilization indicators
Fundación Banco Ambiental (FUNBAM) and Fondo para la Biodiversidad Sostenible, Programa de Conservación de la Biodiversidad - PCB, fourth draft
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) program Strategy; gm version
Programa por pago de servicios ambientales, Canon del agua, Programa Costa Rica por siempre
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: INBio's bioprospecting permits, Del Oro - payments for forest pest and disease control services through a land lease, Children's Rainforest, Monteverde – protected areas, Debt-for-nature swaps, Biodiversity-friendly cocoa, Monteverde Coffee - biodiversity friendly coffee; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Certified Tradable Offset (CTOs), Norway purchase of CTOs - AIJ project, Biodiversifix (AIJ project), CARFIX (AIJ approved 1994), ECOLAND (AIJ approved 1994), Klinki Forestry Project (AIJ project approved 1995), Protoype Carbon Fund - Fund for Renewable Energy; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Heredia Public Service Enterprise - national park protection, Energía Global payments, Central Plateau, River Platanar, San Carlos, Monte Verde Cloud Forests, San Jose watershed fund; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: National protected areas - access rights, Hotel contributions to National Parks System - management contracts, Rafting companies payment for river bank conservation - management contracts, Biological corridors for Titi Monkeys - management contracts, Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve - access rights, Talamanca - package holiday; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Government Payments for Environmental Services scheme - contracts for forest protection, sustainable management and reforestation, Norway purchase of Certified Tradable Offsets, & Costa Rican National Power and Light Company purchase of improved water quality, BOLPRO (Agricultural stock market) - sales of trees’ environmental services
Program of Payments for Ecological Services in Costa Rica
Conservation, Sustainable Use of Biodiversity, and Maintenance of Ecosystem Services of Internationally Important Protected Wetlands (GEF 2012)
Costa Rica 2012
PES as a strategy to minimize risk: The Case of La Esperanza Hydroelectric Power Company, Costa Rica (2010)
Certificate for Environmental Services (2010)
Enabling the legal framework for PES, Costa Rica (2010)
Procuencas Project (2010)
IIED: Fair and green? Social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica, by Ina Porras, December 2010. By 2008 the managing institution FONAFIFO had allocated just over 10,000 contracts and more than US$206 million, an average of US$17.2 million per year. The main category of land use receiving payments is forest protection, which represents 67 per cent of all contracts and accounts for 73 per cent of the financial resources. Reforestation activities account for approximately 20 per cent of contracts and funds; and the programme also covers forest management and agroforestry activities. A significant proportion of payments tend to go to areas with lower opportunity costs, relatively large farms and private companies.
Increasing the efficiency of conservation spending: the case of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica (2007)
Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica (2006)
Mainstreaming Market-based Instruments for Environmental Management Project (GEF 2006)
The social impacts of payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: A quantitative field survey and analysis of the Virilla watershed (2003)
Paying for forest environmental services: the Costa Rican experience (2003)
What are we learning from experiences with markets for environmental services in Costa Rica? A review and critique of the literature (2003)
Workshop on Payment Schemes for Environmental Services: The Use of Market Instruments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica, Institutional Arrangements, Contracts, Monitoring, and Evaluation in Costa Rica (2002)
Financing Environmental Services: The Costa Rican Experience and its Implications (1998)
Ecomarkets (GEF 1999)
The Guanacaste Conservation Area (GCA) in Costa Rica
Program of Payments for Ecological Services in Costa Rica
Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project – Costa Rica, Colombia and Nicaragua
Payments for environmental services
Costa Rica - Introducing Water Use Charges To Pay For Environmental Services

Bioprogramme, sustainable tourism
Research Collaborative Agreements and Bioprospecting in Costa Rica
Inbio–Merck Research Agreement
Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad de Costa Rica (INBio) – Merck & Co.
ABS status; Case study; Legal Framework and Public Policy
Access to Genetic Resources, Protection of Traditional Knowledge, and Intellectual Property Rights: Lessons Learned from the Costa Rican Experience
The Link Between Biodiversity and Sustainable Development: Lessons from INBio’s Bioprospecting Program in Costa Rica
Costa Rican International Cooperative Biodiversity Group: Using Insects and Other Arthropods in Biodiversity Prospecting
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica (Costa Rica, 1997)
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Green National Accounts: Policy Uses and Empirical Experience (1996) by World Bank
(2012) Central government spending in millions: 75.96 (2007), 52.76 (2008), 87.64 (2009), 94.25 (2010), 140.43 (2011), 122.40 (2012)
The budget of the National System of Conservation Areas, SINAC MINAE has grown from 500 million in 1992 to about 2,500 million colones (to 2000), which represented an increase of almost 5 times more
social education sector, tourism sector, food-agriculture sector
Fundación Banco Ambiental (FUNBAM) and Fondo para la Biodiversidad Sostenible, fourth draft
Trust Fund for Protected Areas, National Forestry Financing Fund, CRUSA Foundation, Foundation "Funde-cooperaci—on" for Sustainable Development, Centro Agri’cola Siquirres, Fundación para el Desarrollo de la Cordillera Volcónica Central (FUNDECOR); *Forest Fund, National Forest Financing Fund (FONAFIFO)
Skills for green jobs in Costa Rica (2010)
Programme for South-South Cooperation between Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Canada-Costa Rica Debt Conversion Fund, Swaps with Canada, Netherlands, Spain
Forever Costa Rica from debt-for-nature-swap with USA
Commercial debt conversion
Commercial debt swaps

Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
(2014) environmental protection investment (2010-2012), biodiversity expenditure in millions of pesos: 399.2 (2010), 452.4 (2011), 488.5 (2012)
Investment Plan for Environment in millions of pesos: 41.9 (1998), 102.4 (1999), 196.5 (2000), 250.8 (2001), 179.1 (2002), 220.2 (2003)
National Forest Programme 2000-2015, National Science and Technology Programmes, Branches and Territorial, National Action Plan to Combat Desertification and Drought, National Environmental Education Strategy, Strategy and National Program for fire management, National Action Plan on Biosafety; processes of integration
Forestry Tax, Havana Bay User Tax, Tariff allowances to the import environmental preferable technologies, Presentation
National Environmental Fund, National Science and Technology Fund (FONACYT), National Forestry Development Fund (FONADEF), Fondo Financiero para la Eficiencia Energética
National Fund for Forest Development (FONADEF)
NBSAP2002, 2005

physical planning
Petroleum Stabilization Fund

Dominican Republic
Demonstrating Sustainable Land Management in the Upper Sabana Yegua Watershed System (GEF 2005), Payment for Ecosystem Services in Las Neblinas Scientific Reserve as a Pilot Approach to Ecosystem Management that Promotes the Sustainability of Protected Areas (GEF)
National Fund for Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA Fund), Fondo Pro Naturaleza (PRONATURA), National Fund for Innovation and Technological Development (FONDOCYT)
Special Fund, Forest Trust Fund
Coastal Capital
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Division of Biodiversity and Wildlife: $RD11, 225,102 (2006)
agriculture, rural development, fisheries and aquaculture, mining, education, health, tourism, trade, industry, National Water Resources Institute
Leveraging existing subsidies for environmental protection: Soil conservation
Swap Opportunities
Commercial debt swap

Payment schemes for environmental services in watersheds in Ecuador (Esquemas de pagos por servicios ambientales para la conservación de cuencas hidrográficas en el Ecuador), by D. Cordero Camacho
SNAP Financing Needs Analysis: At the end of 2012, total expenditure on the continental SNAP was $22.6 million, equivalent to the total amount spent over the entire period 2003-2010; an estimated financial target of $21.5 million to achieve a consolidation scenario and $44 million to achieve an ideal management scenario. The National Incentive Program for the Conservation of the Natural Heritage "Socio Bosque": Agreements, beneficiaries, conserved area and incentives provided by the Socio Bosque Program 2009-2013. Generate an official Environmental Accounting System that serves the policy makers based on the calculation of the physical and monetary accounts for the most relevant natural resources in the country; Updating the economic valuation of the SNAP, from a productive sectors approach; Economic valuation of biodiversity in the production systems of fine aroma cocoa. The National Corporation of Forests and Private Reserves of Ecuador (CNBRPE). The 2010-2013 Sustainable Production and Consumption Strategy aims to: i) reduce the ecological footprint; (ii) certification, eco-labeling, stamps; iii) positioning and institutionality; iv) regulation of post-consumption processes; and (v) environmental good practice manuals. Evolution of the total expenditure of the continental SNAP, period 2003-2012; Investment of the Protected Areas Fund in the SNAP 2009-2013.
Mainstreaming biodiversity into public policy design and management in Ecuador, by Sofia Panchi, Ministry of Environment
Private Sources
Rainforest Preservation in Amazonian Ecuador
Fostering Environmentally Sustainable Tourism and Small Business Innovation and Growth in the Galapagos
Trade liberalization, bananas and environmental quality
Technical Secretary of International Cooperation
Jambi Kiwa: medicinal plants from Chimborazo
Fishery certification
National biotrade programme, certification
Engaging local and national stakeholders´ in sustainable trade of natural products
The BioTrade Initiative: Linking the sustainable use of biodiversi ty wi th poverty alleviation
Proyecto Socio Bosque de Conservation (2012)
Inter-municipal cooperation in watershed conservation through the establishment of a regional water fund – FORAGUA – in Southern Ecuador (2012)
A long-term financial mechanism for conservation agreements in the Ecuadorian Chocó (2012)
Ecuador submission on resource mobilization strategy
Ecuador submission on innovative financial mechanisms
Water fund for catchment management in Quito, Ecuador (2010)
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Espinosa, C. 2005. “Payment for Water-Based Environmental Services: Ecuador’s Experiences, Lessons Learned and Ways Forward.” Water, Nature and Economics Technical Paper No. 2. Colombo: IUCN.. Payment for Watershed Services to Generate Public Revenues for Environmental Management in Ecuador. For Cuenca in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, about 60 percent of the city’s water supply comes from the nearby Cajas National Park. The park is under the overall jurisdiction of the Municipal Company of Telecom¬munications, Potable Water, Sewage and Wastewater Treatment (ETAPA), and is managed by the Municipal Corporation of Cajas National Park. The municipal corporation, a local government agency, is funded largely through surcharges on water bills and other payments levied on Cuenca’s water users (which include a hydropower facility) and are paid to ETAPA. The money thus received is used to cover the corporation’s administrative and operating costs. It has also been used to purchase additional lands in the watershed to be set aside for protection, to finance watershed manage¬ment projects and to provide revolving credit and technical advice to farmers in the mid-watershed to help them increase their water use efficiency. In 2003, the corporation’s budget was approximately $700,000, of which some $200,000 was derived from water fees and tourism entrance fees for the national park.
Decentralized Payments for Environmental Services: Comparing the Cases of Pimampiro and PROFAFOR in Ecuador (2005)
Payment for Water-Based Environmental Services: Ecuador’s Experiences, Lessons Learned and Ways Forward (2005)
Decentralised environmental payments
IIED: The impacts of payments for watershed services in Ecuador: Emerging lessons from Pimampiro and Cuenca, January 2004. The payment is for protecting the environmental services, rather than providing the services themselves. When there is a lack of hydrological information, payments for watershed services could actually be a form of insurance against land use change. In this case people are buying an insurance policy, rather than improved water quality or quantity.
Payment for Environmental Services at the Local Level: Comparing two Cases in Ecuador
Payments for Watershed Services: Maintaining natural forest cover and ensuring clean water supplies with payments for ecosystem services in Ecuador
Entrance fees
Protected Areas Fund (PAF), National Environmental Fund, Community Forest Management Fund, Water Fund or private FONAG EcoFund, Funding for the Dry Forest Watch Colonche Chongón, Fondo Ecuatoriano para el Cambio Climático, Fondo Yasuní
CIFOR: Promoting Forest Conservation through Ecotourism Income? A case study from the Ecuadorian Amazon region, Sven Wunder, Center for International Forestry Research, Occasional Paper No. 21, March 1999
Financial Needs of Protected Areas
Ecuador submission on funding needs
The Yasuni-ITT Initiative: rationale for the initiative, valuation, support and donors to the Initiative, Yasuni ITT Trust Fund, government guarantee, governance, anticipated level of funding, moving forward, and closure
The Yasuni-ITT Initiative in Ecuador
Pimampiro payments for watershed services scheme, Strategy on PES

Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Ethno-bioprospecting-access rights, Debt-for-nature swaps, The Tagua Initiative – biodiversity friendly accessories; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Programme FACE de Forestación (PROFAFOR) – a FACE project, Bilsa Biological Reserve; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Water Conservation Fund in Quito, Cuenca City - land acquisition & watershed protection; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: TropicEcological Adventures - access rights and management agreements, Cofan Ecotourism project - access rights and package holiday, Transturi's Flotel in Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve - access rights, Sionas, Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve - tourism services, Maquipucuna Reserve -ecotourism access rights, FUNEDESIN-land purchase & management agreements, Kapawi Ecolodge and Reserve - leasing forest land & management agreement
Markets and contracts for ecosystem services
The Socio Bosque Program in Ecuador
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Accounting for National Resources in Ecuador: Contrasting Methodologies, Conflicting Results (1996), by World Bank
The percentage of expenditure allocated to the environment, in 2003, accounted for 0.39% of the General State Budget. In 2005 the share was 0.40% - approximately $ 29.7 million
agriculture, education, health, fisheries, water resources, mining and oil, tourism, finance, commerce and industry, decentralized autonomous governments
Debt swaps with several governments: Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy and Spain
Swap Opportunities
Fondo Ambiental Nacional (FAN-Ecuador) with Germany, swap with Switzerland
Commercial debt conversion
Commercial debt swaps

El Salvador
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Biodiversity-friendly coffee; Case studies for watershed protection markets: El Imposible National Park - protected area contract
Fund for the Americas Initiative, Fondo Ambiental de El Salvador (FONAES), Environmental Trust for Conservation Coffee Park (FICAFE)
Labor Supply, School Attendance, and Remittances from International Migration: the Case of El Salvador
Measures; Case study
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Swap Opportunities
Fund for the Environment with Canada, swap with USA

Grenada submission on funding needs
Average annual US$ 8,000 (2009)
policy on integration, financing for integration, communication for integration
Basic Needs Trust Fund, rural development fund
Economic Valuation of Parks and Protected Areas

Marketing strategy
Remittances and Poverty in Guatemala
National account; *Economic Valuation of Ecosystem Services
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
Cuenta Integrada de Recursos Pesqueros y Acuícolas: Bases teóricas, conceptuales y metodológicas (2009), by Banco de Guatemala y Universidad Rafael Landívar
Cuenta Integrada de Residuos: Bases teóricas, conceptuales y metodológicas (2009), by Banco de Guatemala y Universidad Rafael Landívar
Cuenta Integrada del Bosque: Bases teóricas, conceptuales y metodológicas (2009), by Banco de Guatemala y Universidad Rafael Landívar
national planning, sectoral plans, the academic
National Fund for the Conservation of Nature (FONACON), Guatemalan Environment Fund (FOGUAMA), Central Fund for Sustainable Development (FOCADES), Trust for Conservation in Guatemala (Private) (FCG), National Land Fund, Sierra de Las Minas Water Fund; *Special Forest Fund; *The Sierra de Las Minas Water Fund
Croda International – Guatemala
Measures; Case study
Commercial debt swap

Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Conservation Concession
Conservation Concession: Protecting forest ecosystems with payments for ecosystem services in Guyana
Sustainable Forest Management and Multiple Global Environmental Benefits (GEF 2011)
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Reforestation and carbon sequestration; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Montagua River, Sierras las Minas; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Community tourism in Alta Verapaz Cloud Forest - package holiday, Bird watching -access rights in private lands
Conservation Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve: Why payments for ecological services were not successful in Guatemala
When Money Flows Upstream: Payment for Watershed Services in Guatemala (2003)
Conservation Incentive Agreements and other PES-type initiatives (2004)
NBSAP1999, 2007
Using an income accounting framework to value non-timber forest products (2002) by FAO
G$ 88,609,145 (2004), G$ 98,456,023 (2005), G$ 135,211,683 (2006)
processes taken to integrate biodiversity into the sectors
Guyana REDD+ Investment Fund, Development of a trust fund for biodiversity
Benefit Sharing Partnership
Mercury-Free Gold mining Technologies: Possibilities for Adoption in the Guianas
The Upper Essequibo Conservation Concession
Swap Opportunities

Haiti Environmental Foundation
Fonds pour la Protection et la Conservation de la Biodiversité (FOPECOB)
Swap Opportunities

Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Biomass power generation (USIJI project)
Honduras 2014
The importance of precision and targeting in Copan Ruinas watershed, Honduras (2010)
Budget allocations of approximately U.S.$400,000 for Biodiversity Management in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and the Department of Protected Areas and Wildlife (2008)
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Cohen, S. 2002. “Pro-poor Markets for Environmental Services. Carbon Sequestration and Watershed Protection.” World Summit on Sustainable Development.. In Honduras, residential consumer water bills were increased by 35 percent, and the addi¬tional revenues used for the conservation of the El Escondido watershed.
Honduras Environmental Funds
Honduras Environmental Funds; *Honduran Fund for Protected Areas, Honduran Foundation for the Conservation of Nature, Fundación Hondureña de Ambiente y Desarrollo "Vida" (Fundación Vida), Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Rural Sostenible (FONADERS), Fondo Hondureño de Inversión Social (FHIS)
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
forest, protected areas and wildlife policy, policy for the agrifood sector and rural areas of Honduras, National Ecotourism Strategy, Forest Action Plan, Plan of Action to Combat Desertification and Drought, National Sustainable Tourism Strategy, business sector, education sector, civil society, media
Swap Opportunities
Honduras/Canada Environmental Management Fund, Reserve of the Biosphere Rio Plátano with Germany, swap with Switzerland

Integrated Management of the Yallahs River and Hope River Watersheds (GEF 2011)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Debt-for-nature swap; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Watershed protection contracts & fees
Environmental Foundation of Jamaica (EFJ), Jamaica Protected Areas Trust (JPAT), Banana Insurance Fund, Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fund; *EFJ
The Impact of Remittances on Labor Supply: The Case of Jamaica
Marine System Valuation: An Application to Coral Reef Systems in the Developing Tropics
Environmental Foundation of Jamaica with USA
Commercial debt swap


Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project; gm version
Integrated Mangement in Lakes Apanas and Asturias Watershed (GEF 2010)
Payments for hydrological Ecosystem Services in the Gil González Watershed - A Public-Private-Partnership Case Study (2013)
Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management Project – Costa Rica, Colombia and Nicaragua
Case study
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
more forests for the future; conservation of water sources; control and reduction of pollution
Fondo Canadá – Nicaragua para el Manéjo del Medio Ambiente, Fondo Nacional de Inversiones (FNI), Fundación Nicaragüense para el Desarrollo Sostenible (FUNDENIC); *FONANIC
Swap Opportunities
Canada/Nicaraguan Fund for the Management of the Environment

Second Rural Poverty, Natural Resources Management and Consolidation of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Project (GEF 2005)
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Reforestation in Chiriqui Province (USIJI), Reforestation bonds in Darien; Case studies for watershed protection markets: Darien - Committee for saving the Filo del Tallo hills, Chagres watershed payments scheme; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Sale of environmental services in Darien
Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources, fondos marinos, Fundación Nacional de la Ciencia; *Foundation Natura
The Panama ICBG
Exploitation of plant defenses in Panama
Case study
Linking bioprospecting with sustainable development and conservation: the Panama case
Economic Valuation of Protected Areas
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
2000, 2007
national coordination mechanisms
Debt swaps
Sovereign Wealth Fund

Case studies for bundled environmental services: Mbaracayu initiative
Tropical Forest Conservation Fund
Environmental services certificates
Mapping the Economic Costs and Benefits of Conservation
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
The national budget allocated 0.28% of its total to SEAM (2003)
Commercial debt swap

Public Procurement in Peru: Reinforcing Capacity and Co-ordination, OECD Public Governance Reviews. This report examines ongoing public procurement reforms in Peru, focusing on procurement processes, participation in tenders, and the culture of integrity in the public procurement process.

Law on Mechanisms of Compensation for Ecosystem Services, 2013. The bill provides a legal framework to support a diverse range of ecosystem services – including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, biodiversity conservation and the preservation of natural beauty. Investments in watershed services (IWS), an already popular water management method in the country, have also been incorporated into the proposal. There are two parties involved in the PES process that the bill lays out. The first are land stewards – farmers, indigenous peoples, landowners and individuals involved in ecotourism, who act as the receivers of ecosystem services. The other group – mostly civil society, businesses and municipalities – are the payers. They compensate the land stewards to practice sustainable land-use. These sustainable practices ensure businesses and cities will have the ecosystem services, like clean water and air, that they need to survive and thrive. The government will be responsible for identifying the payers and also for administering the compensation process.
Assessing Green Interventions for the Water Supply of Lima, Peru: Cost-Effectiveness, Potential Impact, and Priority Research Areas, by Gena Gammie1 and Bert De Bievre. In June 2015, Peru announced it was funneling $112 million of Lima’s water fees – or almost 5% of the total – into programs designed to help the Andes adapt to climate change and offer water quality improvements, with $26 million of that going into “green infrastructure” programs that include the restoration of these ancient structures – called “amunas”.
Rewarding water-related ecosystem services in the Canete Basin, Peru (2013)
Compensation scheme for upstream farmers in municipal protected area, Peru (2010)
Ecological Research Funded by Tourism, by Inkaterra, Peru
How BIOFIN supports biodiversity conversation in Peru, by Luis Antonio Sánchez Perales, BIOFIN National Team Leader
Peru's submission on Resource Mobilization Strategy
Between 1990 and 1997, Peru had budget allocation of 79 million dollars, while 291 million dollars between 1999 and 2004
environment, production, agriculture, education, health, trade and tourism, energy and mining, Presidency of the Council of Ministers, research and development
OECD: Natural Resources and Pro-Poor Growth, The Economics and Politics, DAC Guidelines and Reference Series, A Good Practice Paper. Gold, copper, zinc and other minerals account for 43 percent of government revenues in Peru.
Conservation and Sustainable Use of High-Andean Ecosystems through Compensation of Environmental Services for Rural Poverty Alleviation and Social Inclusion in Peru (GEF 2012), SFM Sustainable Management of Protected Areas and Forests of the Northern Highlands of Peru (GEF 2009), Strengthening Biodiversity Conservation through the National Protected Areas Program (GEF 2007)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Biodiversity-friendly coffee, Rainforest Cookies; Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Private ecotourism concessions, Posada Amazonas - joint ecotourism venture in the Amazon - tour package, Peru Verde's joint ecotourism ventures - package tour; Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Applied Energy Services, Inc. Shady Point
National Fund for Protected Areas (FONANPE), National Environmental Fund (FONAM), Americas Fund of Peru (FONDAM), Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Pesquero, Fondo Nacional de Compensación y Desarrollo Social (FONCODES), Fondo Nacional de Vivienda (FONAVI), Fondo de promoción de microcentrales hidráulicas, Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Pesquero (FONDEPES); *Fondo de las Americas del Peru
Law for Private Investment
Enabling Private Cofinancing through Protected Area Administration Contracts
Peruvian Agency of International Cooperation
AEDES: Agro-export and ecoturism
Medicinal gel
Agreement on the repatriation, restoration and monitoring of agrobiodiversity of native potatoes and associated community knowledge systems
Benefit Sharing in Practice: Hersil
Values of Diversity
Swap Opportunities
PROFONANPE with Canada, Finland, Germany, Switzerland, USA
Fiscal Stabilization Fund
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana

Saint Kitts and Nevis
Island Resources Foundation
Swap Opportunities

Saint Lucia
Biodiversity Trust Fund, Environmental Management Fund
Soufriere Marine Management Area
Adjusting to a New Way of Life- Marine Management Areas and Fishers
2006, 2009
processes for mainstreaming
Tenure reform: Mankote Mangrove

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
forestry sector plans and policies, tourism sector plans, fisheries sector policy, agricultural sector policies
2004, 2006, 2010

Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: International Cooperative Biodiversity Group project – biodiversity access rights
mining, including gold mining, agriculture such as rice, forestry
Suriname Conservation Fund (SCF), (pdf), (doc)
ICBG Project, International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) – Suriname

Trinidad and Tobago
Value of Biodiversity
success stories in mainstreaming biodiversity
The Green Fund, Heritage and Stabilization Fund, Interim Revenue Stabilization Fund; Green Fund (pdf), (ppt), (gm version)
The Heritage and Stabilization Fund

Fondo de las Américas – Uruguay, Fondo de Eficiencia Energética, Fondo de prevención de los efectos de la sequía, Fondo Agropecuario de Emergencias (FAE), Fondo de Reconstrucción y Fomento de la Granja (FRFG); *Forest Fund
Uruguayan Agency of International Cooperation
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
(2014) Agriculture, fishing, mining, tourism, national budget containing environment including biodiversity, but with low allocation
(2010) Agriculture and rural development, environmental education, participation in biodiversity management, biodiversity and health, fishing and marine and coastal biodiversity, forest resources, tourism, energy and industry
Swap with USA

Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)
Biodiversity Conservation in the Productive Landscape of the Venezuelan Andes (GEF 2005)
La Experiencia Venezolana en Esquemas de Pagos por Servicios Ambientales (2006)
Conserving Biodiversity and Commercializing Non-timber Forest Products in Venezuela’s Caura Basin (2013)
national project Simón Bolívar 2007-2013; National Land Plan; National Environmental Plan
Timber discounts for reforestation
National Fund for National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Fondo Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (FONAIAP), Fundación para el Desarrollo de la Región Centro Occidente (FUDECO), Fundación para el Desarrollo de la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FUNDACITE), Fundación Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho (FUNDAYACUCHO), Fundación Venezolana de Investigaciones Sismológicas (FUNVISIS), Fundación de Servicios para el Agricultor (FUSAGRI)
Central American Fund for Environment and Development (FOCADES)
The Caiman and the capybara: commercial use of wildlife
Brisas Gold and Copper Project
Informe Final - Estado y Evolucion de las Cuentas del Medio Ambiente en America Latina (1997), by Fundacion Futuro Latinoamericana
NBSAP2001, 2010
Macroeconomic Stabilization Fund

World Bank: Toward a Blue Economy: A Promise for Sustainable Growth in the Caribbean, by Pawan G. Patil et al, an overview, Report No: AUS16344, September 2016. Estimates of the ocean’s contribution to the world economy range from US$1.5 trillion to US$3 trillion a year, about 3-5 percent of all economic activity in the world. Caribbean waters generated revenues of US$407 billion in 2012, while the area contains just 1 percent of the global ocean. For the island states and territories, gross revenues generated in 2012 directly from the ocean economy totaled about US$53 billion, mainly from ocean transport, tourism, and oil and gas production.
Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE/CABEI)
CAF, development bank of Latin America
Financial planning for biodiversity in the Caribbean
Biodiversity financial planning in Central and North Americas
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in South America
Subregional workshop on biodiversity and finance for preparation of WGRI-4 and COP-11, San Jose, Costa Rica, Friday, 9 March 2012 (provisional agenda)
Central America Regional Workshop on Biodiversity and Finance, 5 May 2011, Panama City, Panama (Statement, Workshop summary)
South America Regional Workshop on Biodiversity and Finance, 30 April 2011, Cartagena, Colombia (Workshop summary)
UNDP: Mapping Multilateral Support to South-South Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Towards Collaborative Approaches, November 2011
Communities Contributing to Biodiversity: Biodiversity Products from Latin America and the Caribbean (2010)
Habitat Banking in Latin America and Caribbean: A Feasibility Assessment (2010)
Communities of Conservation: Safeguarding the World's Most Threatened Species Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela (GEF 2009)
UNDP and UNEP: Making the Economic Case: A Primer on the Economic Arguments for Mainstreaming Poverty-Environment Linkages into National Development Planning. Burke, L., and J. Maidens. 2004. Reefs at Risk in the Caribbean. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. Healthy coral reefs in the Caribbean provide shoreline protection services estimated as worth between $2,000 per square kilometre in virtually unpopulated areas and $1 million per square kilometre in densely settled and developed areas (Burke and Maidens 2004). 2007
Payments for environmental services in watersheds: Insights from a comparative study of three cases in Central America, by Nicolas Kosoya. Ecological Economics 61 (2007) 446 – 455. In general, the opportunity costs are larger than the amounts paid, which apparently contradicts the economic foundation of PES schemes and the role of “intangibles” is important in inducing participation. Trade-offs between different environmental and social goals are likely to emerge in PES schemes, posing some doubts as to their ability to be multipurpose instruments for environmental improvement and rural development. PES schemes may work as a conflict-resolution instrument, facilitating downstream–upstream problem solving, though at the same time they might introduce changes in social perceptions of property rights.
Payments for Environmental Services: A Survey and Assessment of Current Schemes, by Unisféra International Centre, for the Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America, Montreal, September 2004. More than 300 PES schemes have been inventoried in the world. PES systems work best when services are visible and beneficiaries are well organized, and when land user communities are well structured, have clear and secure property rights, strong legal frameworks, and are relatively wealthy or have access to resources. There is a built-in tension in PES schemes between the concurrent goals of effectiveness, efficiency and equity. Among the emerging best practices that can be identified, the diversification of revenues for communities involved in PES schemes through the creation of new markets for environmental goods and services (non-timber forest products, organic food, ecotourism) appears to be one of the most promising. PES schemes may not work effectively if poor communities, which are most dependent on the land for their livelihoods, are excluded from the system. PES schemes have the potential to become very valuable transfer mechanisms to internalize positive environmental externalities, and to generate new revenues for sustainable development.
Regional meeting on the philanthropy sector in Latin America and the Caribbean
Integrated Silvo-Pastoral Approaches to Ecosystem Management in Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua (GEF 2001), Public-Private Funding Mechanisms for Watershed Protection (GEF)
Biodiversity and Business in Latin America: Real investment opportunities of all sizes exist in agriculture (including aquaculture), forestry, products sustainably harvested from the wild such as nontimber forest products (NTFPs), and ecotourism.
Certification in Latin America: Experience to Date (1998)

Climate Finance Regional Briefing: Latin America and the Caribbean
Civil Society Organizations and Inclusive Partnerships for South-South Cooperation in Latin America
The New Boom in South-South Cooperation: The Experience of Ibero-America
Public Goods and Regional Cooperation for Development: A New Look
IDB: Regional Public Goods: an innovative approach to South-South Cooperation

Latin America and the Caribbean
Organization of American States (OAS) (1889/1951)
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) (1948)
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) (1959)
Forum of Ministers of the Environment of Latin America and the Caribbean
Latin American and Caribbean Initiative for Sustainable Development (ILAC)
Regional Action Plan (RAP)
Inter-Agency Technical Committee (ITC)

Central America
Central American Integration System (SICA): Central American Convention for the Conservation of Biodiversity and the Protection of Priority Wetlands (1992); Central American Convention on Climate Change; Mexico-Central America Declaration on Sustainable Development; Central American Policy on the Conservation and Wise Use of Wetlands; Plan of Action for the Integrated Development of Water Resources in Central America (PACADIRH)
Central American Commission for Environment and Development: Council of Ministers of the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD); Environmental Plan for the Central American Region (PARCA); Regional Strategy for the Sustainable Use and Conservation of Biodiversity in Mesoamerica (ERB)
Central American Council on Forests and Protected Areas (CCAB-AP): Central America Forestry Strategy (EFCA)
Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA): Environment chapter (Chapter 17 of the agreement); Environmental Cooperation and Capacity Building Mechanism

South America
Andean Community: Regional Biodiversity Strategy of the Andean Community; Andean Committee of Environmental Authorities (CAAM); Andean Environmental Agenda
Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization: Regional Amazon Strategy on Biodiversity; Strategic plan 2004-2012
Mercosur (Southern Cone Common Market): Working group on the environment (SGT6); Florianopolis Framework Agreement on the Environment; Specialized Meeting of Environment Ministers

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM)
Forum of Caribbean States (CARIFORUM)
Association of Caribbean States (ACS)
Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment in the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention)
Regional Activity Centres (RACs) and Regional Activity Networks (RANs)
Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region
Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW) in the Wider Caribbean Region
Protocol Concerning Pollution from Land-Based Sources and Activities

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme