National and international financing: Western European and Others

Andorra

Australia: Financing for Biodiversity

Austria
Austria 2014
Climate assistance
(2014) Projects: 1. Improving Livelihoods through Knowledge Partnerships and Value Chains of Bee Products and Services in the Himalayas (ICIMOD); 2. FORED Forest Research for Development Partnership (Vienna University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences); 3. ENPI FLEG II Forest Law Enforcement and Governance: Complementary Measures to Georgia and Armenia (World Bank, IUCN, WWF); 4. Improving water management and protection of water-related ecosystems in the Lower Dniester Ramsar Site, Moldova (BIOTICA Ecological Society); 5. Empowering organizations of indigenous people and Sustainable Development in the Rio Negro Region, Brasilia (Horizont 3000, Instituto Socioambiental, FOIRN)
Notes
2013
OECD: Environmental performance review: Austria 2013. Expanding environment-related markets and employment, Bilateral aid in support of the environment, Greening the tax system, removing environmentally perverse incentives, better targeting environmentally motivated incentives, environment-related components of the fiscal stimulus packages, Expenditure for environmental protection and water supply, budgetary support to environmental investment
WWF and Lafarge partnership on biodiversity
2012
Road charging, tax deductions for commuters in Austria
Financing of domestic environmental protection expenditure 2011 in million
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
2009
Austria review: ADA
Austrian Development Agency
Measures
Biodiversity, Landscapes and Ecosystem Services of Agriculture And Forestry in the Austrian Alpine Region - An Approach to Economic (E)Valuation
2005
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
Allocations in federal agricultural and environment budgets: agrarian environment measures 316 Mio. € (budget item 1/60366), 191 Mio. € (budget item 1/60376) and within environmental expenses (budget item 1/61208) (2005)
2002
Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
Environmental expenditure in industry - Improvement of existing methodology for data collection in Austria (2002), by European Commission
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
2000
(2000) Improving the Environment through Reducing Subsidies (2000) - Environmental and Economic Effects of Support to the Austrian Pulp and Paper Industry
The Weight of Nations (2000), by World Resources Institute
NBSAP1998
Environmental expenditure in industry – Improvement of existing methodology for data collection
Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
agriculture, forestry, spatial planning, tourism, hunting and industry/energy/traffic
Subsidies
Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects - Reforming Counterproductive Subsidies in Austrian Transport
BIOSA network of land owners for nature conservation - mission, targets, contract conservation, Styrian Natural Forest Cells - Contract Conservation in Styria, pilot and research projects
studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Lower Austria Landscape Fund - biodiversity management contracts
BIOSA network of land owners for nature conservation in Austria

Belgium
2014
Fifth national report: Agri-environment schemes
Objective 15 of the new strategy: Ensure the provision of adequate resources for biodiversity
Agri-environmental subsidies, Natura 2000 remunerations for the farmers and for the forestry sector, dispensation of property tax and of succession and donation rights within Natura 2000, subsidies for biological agriculture, supplementary subsidies for agri-environmental measures in Natura 2000 sites and in the main ecological structure areas (SEP), subsidies for the planting of hedges, tree rows and orchards, subsidies attributed through the 'Plan Communal de Développement de la Nature', for delayed mowing, hedges, for the program 'combles et clochers', within river contracts, for the Maya Plan, for natural parks, for the action 'Semaine de l'Arbre', etc, subsidies for the regeneration of broadleaved and conifer species, subsidies for the management of open spaces, subsidies for the acquisition of land that will be designated as nature reserve, subsidies to nature associations for management or for communication and awareness purposes.
Adoption of biodiversity criteria in public procurement policies - use of certified wood in public works (http://www.guidedesachatsdurables.be)
Minafonds in Flanders to deal with financial aspects of investments in the field of environment
Sector-specific platforms (Biodiversity and Enterprises), NGO Natuurpunt guidance sheets for private companies (http://bedrijven.natuurpunt.be/), consultation group between Agency for Nature & Forests and private industries, nature activities of electricity, mineral water, brewery companies, ECOSEM, the Wallonia Nature Network, Consumers and biodiversity study, Business and biodiversity study.
Increasing areas under organic farming, legislation concerning the production and labelling processes of biological products as well as concerning grants for organic farming in the Walloon Region, BioForum Wallonie (coordination), and the Bio Pilot Centre (technical guidance structure), strategic plan for the development of biological agriculture to 2020, the Wallonia Nature Network - Catalogue of actions, certified forest land (nearly 90% on public land)
Nature value explorer (http://www.natuurwaardeverkenner.be)
BEES (Belgium Ecosystem Services) (http://www.beescommunity.be), monetary value of the forest ecosystem services in the Walloon Region, value of the Natura 2000-network in Flanders, benefits of green in the city, value of the Heverleebos-Meerdaalwoud in 2000, ECOsystem services of FRESHwater systems, VOTES (Valuation Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Services in a multifunctional peri-urban space
2013
Sectoral integration: water management, agriculture, forestry, military areas, business, local authorities, private public partnership, land use planning, budgets, construction, economy, development cooperation, and science policy
2012
Mainstreaming Biodiversity in developing countries: the case of Belgium, by Luc Janssens de Bisthoven, Royal Belgian Institute for Natural Sciences, RBINS, DGD-RBINS programme-”Capacities for Biodiversity and Sustainable development”, CEBioS. The COP12 side event "Capacity building and mainstreaming of biodiversity in development cooperation", Royal Belgian Institute Natural Sciences (RBINS), Cebios and UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative
Integrating relevant knowledge into payment schemes for conservation? Science Policy Interface approaches, by Charles-Hubert Born, UCL. COP12 event "Aichi Target 3 on Positive Incentives: Can Market-Based Instruments Make a Difference?" Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI))
Submission on funding
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Company car taxation, reform of car registration tax system, reduced environmental charge rate for waste incineration in Flanders, Belgium
2010 Belgium review: BGDC
Central and regional biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 211.35 (2010)
2009
Private Public Partnership
2007
OECD: Environmental Performance Review: Belgium 2007: agri-environmental measures, forest plantation payments
Export credits
Certified organic farming, certification of sustainable forestry management, product labelling
Public expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection
Environmentally-related taxes, greening fiscal measures, agricultural subsidies, green procurement, environmental charges, water charges, pesticide ecotax
Environment-related jobs, net effect of environmental policies on employment, trade and the environment (tropical timber, genetically modified organisms)
Agreements with industry, environmental certification
The agri-environmental measures
Environmental Tax Accounts for Belgium (1990-2007)
2006
NBSAP2006
Cooperation projects on Rio conventions
Climate assistance
2005
Environmental Tax Accounts for Belgium 1997-2002, by European Commission
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium 1997-2002 (2005), by European Commission
2004
EPE by the Belgian industries in 2002 - Imputation techniques and results (2004), by European Commission
2003
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium 1997-2000 (2003), by European Commission
2002
Environmental Tax Accounts for Belgium (1997-2002)
Environmental expenditures by the Belgian industries in 2002 - Imputation techniques and results
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium : 1997- 2002
Current environmental protection expenditure in Belgium (2001), by European Commission
2000
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium – 1997-2000
1999
Current environmental protection expenditure by the Belgian industry (1999)
1997
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts for Belgium – 1997

The Belgian Environmental Tax Accounts, Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts, Air Emission Accounts (Summary)
Grants and subsidies, public procurement
King Baudouin Foundation
Directorate General for Cooperation and Development
biodiversity criteria in public procurement policies, forest certification, organic farming
Belgian Fund for Food Security
Environmental liability policy
Socio-economic benefits of biodiversity
Public expenditure on biodiversity and landscape protection in Belgium amounted to EUR 130‑150 million annually during 2000‑03, an increase from EUR 90‑110 million a year during 1996‑99. The share of investment expenditure steadily increased, from 11% in 1996 to 44% in 2003
Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
Counting sectoral financing
Export credit agencies have begun to consider biodiversity and ecosystem services

Canada: Financing for Biodiversity

Denmark
2014
Denmark 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2012)
Fifth national report: Annual contribution of DKK 2.3 billion, equivalent to USD 390 million p.a. (average for 2006-2010). This amount corresponds to approx. DKK 410 per person per year, or 0.13% of GNP
Subsidies for draining removed from agricultural grant schemes, subsidies stopped for draining and building roads in woodlands under the woodland improvement scheme, pesticide tax reallocated to stimulate the reduced use of those pesticides resulting in the highest load with respect to human health and the environment, specific subsidy schemes under the national Rural Development Programme set up for protection of threatened species living on open land and in woodland, advisory scheme with information on the national subsidy schemes under the Rural Development Program. The Green Growth Agreement (2009) with significant amounts earmarked in recent years for protection and care of Natura 2000 and Article 3 areas, for restoration of nature and to improve the aquatic environment, and ensure more water in the countryside. 5 year environment and organic schemes promoted by caring for grass and natural areas, including 1-year subsidy schemes for extensive farming. Decisions on investment in infrastructure and tax reforms
The Partnership for Green Public Procurement, Forum for Sustainable Procurement and several specific projects, including the "Responsible Purchaser" web portal, to promote consideration for the environment in public sector procurement
Submission 2014: NGOs. foundations, academia in million US dollars: 1.31 (2006), 1.68 (2007), 1.31 (2008), 0.93 (2009), 3.92 (2010), 44.65 (2011), 37.36 (2012). explanation
Development in total organic production area 1995-2012
Value of specific ecosystem services in forestry, agriculture and fisheries, value of insect pollination of arable crops (DKK 421-690 million a year), total value of ecosystem services DKK 5,000-8,000 per hectare on agricultural land at Vollerup Skov on West Zealand, socio-economic benefits of restoring Skjern River - DKK 200 million. Development of green national accounting (Danish National Statistics Institute, 2013)
Submission 2014: Central, state and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of US dollars: 226.59 (2006), 213.89 (2007), 288.98 (2008), 270.12 (2009), 209.03 (2010), 301.5 (2011), 370.43 (2012). explanation
Submission 2014: More than 60 technical cooperation projects.
African – European Environment Ministers Conference on ABS, ABS Capacity Development Initiative, Copenhagen ABS Business Dialogues; African – European Environment Ministers Conference on ABS; ABS Capacity Builing Initiative
2013
Integration: spatial planning, municipal cooperation, agriculture, forestry, fishery and aquaculture policies, extraction of raw materials, infrastructural development, such as railways and highways; financing and expenditure; fiscal policy; education; international co-operation
2012
Submission 2012
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Afforestation initiatives, agri-environmental measures
Agri-environment Schemes applied; 2012 submission; Submission 2012
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Emissions trading scheme for electricity plants
Costs of the management measures
Subsidies for the modernisation of fishing vessels in Denmark
Counting North-South technical cooperation (over 60 projects0
Counting non-governmental organization financing in million DKK: 7 (2006), 9 (2007), 7 (2008), 5 (2009), 21 (2010)
2011
Denmark review: Ministry of Foreign Affairs
2009
2009 Agreement on Green Growth - public expenses and financing sources
Climate assistance
2008
Danish Environmental Expenditure Accounts 2008
2007
OECD: Environmental performance review: Denmark 2007: water pricing, environmentally harmful subsidies, environmentally related taxes, green tax packages, water tax, waste water tax, financial support to afforestation
Fish organic label, organic farm, forest certification, eco-labelling
Access to nature, environmental employment, international trade in endangered species
Public expenditure on nature and biodiversity protection, environmental expenditure
Environmental assistance, environmental funds, Nordic Environment Finance Corporation (NEFCO)
Agri-environmental measures
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting (2007), by United Nations Statistics Division and Statistics Denmark
2005
Environmentally Harmful Subsidies: Linkages between subsidies, the environment and the economy
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Tradeable Carbon Dioxide Emission Permits (2005), by Statistics Denmark
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts for Water and Waste Water Denmark 1999-2003 (2005), by European Commission
Regional Environmental Accounts Denmark 2003 (2005), by European Commission
2004
NBSAP2004
Counting sectoral financing
Pilot Survey of Environmental Protection Investments and Current Expenditure in the Manufacturing Industry in Denmark (2004), by European Commission
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
2003
The Danish Environmental Accounts with Examples of its Use (2003), by OECD
2002
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
2000
Environmental taxes and subsidies in the Danish NAMEA, by European Commission
1998
Economic Incentives for the Transformation of Privately Cultivated Forest Areas into Forest Reserves
1997
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Introduction of NACE Rev. 2 in the Danish Accounts for Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
Counting subsidies
Danish pesticides tax, Compensation, subsidies, pesticide tax
1996
Environmental Taxes and Subsidies in the Danish NAMEA 1996
Implementing Environmental Fiscal Reform: Income Distribution and Sectoral Competitiveness Issues - The Danish Tax Reforms in the 1990’s
Nordea Fonden, Realdania, Velux Foundation, Villum Foundation
Skills for green jobs
Danish International Development Agency
Organic farming
Assessing recreational values of Danish forests to guide national plans for afforestation
Socio-economic importance of ecosystem services in the Nordic Countries: Assessing recreational values of Danish forests to guide national plans for afforestation
Survey of the possibilities of collecting questionnaire-based data on environmental protection expenditure for the manufacturing industry
Pilot Survey of Environmental Protection Investments and Current Expenditure in the Manufacturing Industry
Reports

European Union

Finland
Finland 2014
The Finnish METSO-programme
Payment for Ecosystem Services - Forest Diversity Programme METSO
Agri-environmental support
NBSAP1997, 2007
What Are the Opportunities and Challenges for Initiatives and the Global Partnership - Case Finland, by Corporate Responsibility Network FIBS
Submission
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Finland and UK submission on resource mobilization strategy
Climate assistance
(2014) Central and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 613.3 (2006), 640.4 (2007), 716.5 (2008), 646.1 (2009), 682.2 (2010), 649.1 (2011)
Public sector environmental protection expenditure 2011
Submission 2012
Report
Governmental expenditure on nature and biodiversity conservation, environmental expenditure
governance structure, international co-operation, including EU co-operation
(2014) survey of environmentally harmful subsidies; An extensive survey of environmentally harmful subsidies (http://valtioneuvosto.fi/ajankohtaista/tiedotteet/tiedote/fi.jsp?oid=386980)
(2012) Subsidies to improve forestry on peat lands in Finland
Environmental taxes by economic activities
Subsidies
national strategy on SCP, 2009 resolution on sustainable procurement, Forest Diversity Programme METSO
Environmental subsidies for agriculture, METSO Forest Biodiversity Programme for Southern Finland
Tax concessions, environment-related taxes, environmentally harmful subsidies, water and waste water charges, fishing licence fee, fees related to recreational hunting
National programme to promote sustainable consumption and production
Sustainable consumption and production, Environment and employment, Trade and endangered species
(2014) Private and market biodiversity funding (2006-2011); Finnish Business and Biodiversity network; Business and Biodiversity Finland seeks to create public awareness and offers information about best practices concerning biodiversity management as well as tools for companies to implement in their own operations. The B@B network help companies to identify and manage their own impacts on nature. The initiative encourages companies to integrate biodiversity and ecosystem services in all environmental and sustainability management systems and practices. The programme is executed by FIBS in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment (More information: http://www.fibsry.fi/fi/fibs25-en)
(2012) Counting private sector financing
(2009) Private family forests, Private sector initiatives
(2012) Finland review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Field area under organic farming 1990–2012 and development of the market for organic products 2011–2013 and a target set for 2015 by Pro Luomu; There are two voluntary forest certification schemes in operation in Finland: FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) promotes responsible forestry and the first national standard came into force in spring 2011. So far, a bit less than 500 000 hectares of forests have been certified http://fi.fsc.org/index.htm (in Finnish), predominantly by forest-based industry companies as well as private forest owners under group certification of the companies. The regulations regarding management and use are revised at five-year intervals in the standard development group under Forest Stewardship Council Finland (in Finnish). PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes) promotes ecologically, socially and economically sustainable forestry throughout the world. The PEFC system includes requirements for forest management and use, verification of origin of wood raw material, as well as for the independence and competence of the auditors. The regulations regarding management and use are revised at five-year intervals. The Finnish PEFC standards are now under revision. The Finnish PEFC system is maintained and developed by PEFC Finland – Finnish Forest Certification Council. The rules of the council can be found here (in Finnish). Approximately 20.7 million hectares of Finnish production forests are certified under the Finnish PEFC system. The Finnish system was endorsed for membership of PEFC in the year 2000. Ecological sustainability criteria take into account biodiversity widely e.g. by preserving typical forest habitats and ensuring species survival. For example, as a result of PEFC certification the number of retention trees at clear felling sites has increased being nowadays about ten per hectare.
Organic farming
Finnish Forest Certification System
The Act on the Financing of Sustainable Forestry and the Development of Forest Certification: Finnish Case Study on Biodiversity Incentive Measures (2002)
TEEB Finland (2013–2014); The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity Finland (2013–2014) - project aims to systematically incorporate the value of ecosystem services into all levels of decision-making. The project’s goal is to identify Finland's most important (key) ecosystem services and propose methods to assess their current status and future trends. It will also aim to provide some preliminary estimates on the economic importance of some key services, especially the ones that so far remain under-recognized. Consequently, the project pays special attention to the regulating and cultural services that thus far have received limited attention. Building on the insights above, TEEB Finland will also analyze the opportunities for improving the governance of ecosystem services, including exploring how ecosystem services can be linked to supporting the development of sustainable green economy in Finland. The project will produce recommendations for effective integration of ecosystem services into decisionmaking processes, and for governing natural capital and ecosystem services. The project will also identify major knowledge gaps.
Biodiversity as an economic issue
Estimating economic benefits of protected areas in Finland – making a case for continued public investment
Socio-economic importance of ecosystem services in the Nordic Countries: Benefits of green infrastructure – socio-economic importance of constructed urban wetlands (Nummela, Finland); Estimating economic benefits of protected areas in Finland – making a case for continued public investment
Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
An Environmental Accountant’s Dilemma: Are Stumpage Prices Reliable Indicators of Resource Scarcity? (2003), by National Institute of Economic Research
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications (1999), by European Commission
Debt conversions

France
2015
Nature and the Wealth of Nations, December 2015
France 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2012)
NBSAP2004, 2011
Economic leverages to conciliate economic development with biodiversity, by Laurent Piermont, Caisse des Dépôts
Mission Economie de la Biodiversité
Cossure Case Study, by Vincent Hulin, Head of Research, Caisse des Dépôts
Biodiversity-harmful subsidies in France: methodology, inventory and reform proposals, by Guillaume Sainteny, President of the National Commission on Biodiversity-Harmful Subsidies
Clarifying terminology issues with biodiversity financing instruments: markets versus payments? by Philippe Méral, IRD
INVALUABLE: a highly policy-relevant project, by Renaud Lapeyre, IDDRI
2014
Sur la période 2013-2016, le volume annuel moyen des engagements financiers pondérés de l’AFD sera porté à un minimum de 160M€, contre 80M€ sur la période de référence de 2006 à 2010 retenue par la COP11 d’Hyderabad. Les engagements financiers de l’AFD seront répartis entre l’objectif 1 (75 % soit 120M€), l’objectif 2 (21% soit 34M€) et l’objectif 3 (4% soit 6 M€). Ces engagements bénéficieront en priorité à l’Afrique subsaharienne et à la Méditerranée.
15% of agricultural land in Natura 2000 area have been the subject of agri-environmental measures. 9% of fish farms have implemented aqua-environmental measures.
Dispositifs de paiement pour services environnementaux (PSE)
Wetland Carbon Partnership
Climate assistance
2012
Submission
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
France - AFD and FFEM
French Agency for Development - AFD provided 315 M€ (4% of total funding) for biodiversity and natural resources projects around the world in 2014.
2006
Investing in protection of ecosystem services: a business opportunity for Vittel (Nestlé Waters), France
The ‘Make or Buy’ Decision in Private Environmental Transactions (2006)
2005
Vittel (Nestlé Waters) case, Biodiversity Conservation Bank in France, Vittel, The Vittel payments for ecosystem services: a “perfect” PES case? (2005) agri-environmental support, Evaluation des Mesures Agro-Environnementales
Payments for improved watershed management practices
Valuing Forest Biodiversity from a National Survey
A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Biodiversity Conservation Programmes in the Garonne Valley
An economic approach to biodiversity and ecosystems services: Contribution to public decision-making (2009)
Report by the Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress
Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis (2004), by FAO
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications (1999), by European Commission
Les Comptes du Patrimoine Naturel (1986), by INSEE
Écologie et statistique : les comptes du patrimoine naturel (1987), by Journal De La Société Statistique De Paris
The carbon footprint of French consumption: evolution between 1990 and 2007 (2012), by Commissariat général au développement durable
The hidden face of materials mobilised by the French economy (2013), by Ministère De L’écologie, Du Développement Durable
(2014) Évolution de la dépense nationale en faveur de la protection de la biodiversité et des paysages
(2014) Central, state and provincial, local and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 1064 (2007), 1184 (2008), 1292 (2009), 1394 (2010), 1589 (2011)
(2012) Submission
Reports
(2011) Environmental spending
Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
(2005) national expenditure on biodiversity and landscapes, environmental protection expenditure
(2002) Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications, by European Commission
Counting sectoral financing
agriculture, land policy, forestry, fisheries, finance, tourism, mining industry, industry, commerce, education, public awareness and information, rural development program, climate change adaptation strategy, sustainable development strategy, environmental plan, infrastructure and transport, urbanization, international cooperation and research
(2014) Innovative initiatives for biodiversity financing - Converting harmful subsidies. Full report
(2014) Comité pour la fiscalité écologique, Réformes fiscales environnementales engagées depuis 2011
(2012) Subsidies contributing to unsustainable land use and soil sealing, exemption from land tax for reforestation and afforestation on wetlands, implicit subsidy to the use of nitrogen-rich fertilisers in agriculture in France
(2005) department tax for sensitive natural areas, accommodation taxes, parking fees, hunting licence fees, general tax on polluting activities, farm subsidies, environment-related taxes
(2000) Improving the Environment through Reducing Subsidies (2000) - Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Support: Cereal Irrigation in France
La fiscalité environnementale en France : un état des lieux
Inventaire des taxes environnementales en France
Les aides publiques dommageables à la biodiversité
Study on incentives
taxe d’aménagement, Fonds de dotation pour la gestion d’espaces naturels
Reforming Energy and Transport Subsidies: Environmental and Economic Implications - Evaluation of the External Costs of Road Transport in France and the Consequences of Cost internalization
Implementing Environmental Fiscal Reform: Income Distribution and Sectoral Competitiveness Issues - Eco-Taxes and Competitiveness Issues: Lessons Learned from the Carbon-Energy Tax Project in France in 1998-2000
Fonds Forestier National; *AFD and FFEM
Centre Français des Fondations, Working Group on Environnement
Agropolis Fondation, Baltic Sea 2020, Fondation BNP Paribas, Fondation Charles Léopold Mayer pour le progrès de l’Homme, Fondation Ensemble, Fondation Insolites Bâtisseurs, Fondation Nature et Découvertes, Fondation Nicolas Hulot pour la Nature et l'Homme, Fondation PETZL
Remittance Markets
(2012) Counting technical cooperation financing
(2014) In 2011, employment in eco-activities increased by 6.7% compared to 2010 and represents 455,600 people in "full time equivalent". This increase is one of the largest observed over the period 2004-2011 where the average annual growth rate of employment in eco-activities was 4.6%. This situation is more favorable than the overall economy where employment has stagnated in 2011 (+ 0.5%).
Skills for green jobs
environment and employment, environmental job creation programmes, international trade and tropical timber, endangered species
Environmental employment in France 96-98 (2000), by European Commission
(2014) NGOs, foundation, and academia in euros (millions): 119 (2007), 139 (2008), 148 (2009), 155 (2010), 166 (2011)
(2012) Counting non-governmental organization financing in millions € current: average 113.4 (2006-2010)
(2014) Corporate Social Responsibility. Decree No. 2012-557 of 24 April 2012 on transparency requirements for corporate social and environmental issues. This decree introduced new mandatory requirements of annual non-financial reporting, including biodiversity ("e. Protection of biodiversity - measures to preserve or enhance biodiversity")· The evaluation report by Orée on the implementation of the decree shows that 95% of companies have filled this indicator (57% qualitatively). Corrective actions are also proposed.
(2014) Private and market biodiversity expenditure (2007-2011)
(2012) Counting private sector financing
(2007) Lafarge’s Sustainability Report, Driving Quarry Restoration
(2005) public private partnerships
(2014) l’Agence française de développement a adopté en septembre 2013 un cadre d’intervention transversal (CIT) Biodiversité pour la période 2013-2016 qui prévoit le doublement du montant des interventions de l’AFD dans ce secteur et l’engagement d’octroyer 160 millions d’euros par an, en moyenne, à des actions dédiées aux aires protégées et à une gestion durable des ressources naturelles.
(2013)
Biodiversité: Cadre d’intervention transversal 2013-2016
(2013) France review
French Development Agency
(2014) Innovative initiatives for biodiversity financing - Green Market. Full report
(2014) Development of organic agriculture. End of 2012, 24,425 farms were engaged in organic farming, an increase of 5.6% compared to 2011 (1,290 additional operations). The "organic" farms then represented 4.7% of farms in France. With 4 billion euros in sales in 2012 (against 2.1 billion euros in 2007), the consumption of organic products in the home was 2.4% of the total food market (against 1.3% in 2007).
Organic farming
La taxe française sur les transactions financières (TTF)
Airline ticket levy
options for an international tax system
International Taxation and Global Public Goods, Private Donations to Development, Official Development Assistance (ODA): Key Facts and Figures, Human Development and Global Funds, How Volatile is ODA?, Intergenerational Issues in Official Development Assistance, The Vaccine Fund as an Example of Conditional Funding Mechanism for Human Development, The Double Dividend, The Iopc Fund: an Example of an Existing “International Tax”, International Geostationary Orbital Position Assignment Procedure
Towards global taxation in the service of alternative globalization
Estimating the Base for a Corporate Income Tax Surcharge on Multinationals, Bank Transparency as a Public Good
(2014) Innovative initiatives for biodiversity financing - Superoffsetting damage to biodiversity. Full report
(2014) No net loss policies and offsetting in France
(2012) Mesures compensatoires
mesures compensatoires
Biodiversity bank, Status 2011
Caisse des Dépôts et Consignations (CDC) - Biodiversité
Mitigation hierarchy in France
International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. Member Institution Registration Agreement between Genoscope ("Principal Investigator") and Pharmacia Corporation (Extract of contract provided
Libreville Fund, debt reduction and development contract
Stimulus package financed the priority areas identified within the “Grenelle de l’Environnement” that support ecology, sustainable development and land use management
Strategic Investment Fund
(2005) French export credit agency

Germany
Experiences with mainstreaming biodiversity in German Development Cooperation, Dr. Matthias Krause, Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Division 310 -Environment; Sustainable Use of Natural Resources; Marine Conservation and Biodiversity, December 2016
Agro-environmental measures (1994-2010)
Grassland Conservation Pilot Tender, Auction trial with outcome-based payment scheme
Payments for Environmental Services in German Financial Cooperation
Germany 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2012)
Federal Biological Diversity Programme, Research promotion by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Federal Environment Ministry (BMUB), Sustainable Land Management and Ecosystem Services (BMBF), Conservation and sustainable use of agrobiodiversity (BMEL)
NBSAP2007
(2012) Submission
(2012) Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
ValuES: Methods for integrating ecosystem services into policy, planning and practice
Nagoya Protocol Capacity Development Needs, by Suhel al-Janabi, ABS Capacity Development Initiative; Strengthening Capacities to Combat Poaching and the Illegal Wildlife Trade in Support of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, by Deutsche Gesellschaft Für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ Traffic, The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network
Central African initiatives to combat proaching
German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change in December 2008
Environment and Climate Fund (using a part of the revenues of the sale of emission allowances within the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) to support biodiversity related projects on national level through the National Forest and Climate Fund (http://www.waldklimafonds.de); International Climate Initiative (www.international-climate-initiative.com/en)
International Climate Initiative (ICI)
Climate assistance
Germany’s private climate finance support: Mobilising private sector engagement in climate compatible development
Enforcing Wildlife Law and Preventing Wildlife Crime in Namibia
Wildlife Consumption in Vietnam: Reforming policies and practices to strengthen biodiversity conservation in support of the Aichi targets
Impact Regulation and compensation pools in Germany - combining instruments for no net loss, by Martin Szaramowicz, Flächenagentur Brandenburg GmbH
German Submission on Strategy for Resource Mobilization
Germany Allianz Foundation for Sustainability
Environment Foundation
Germany Euronatur
German Experience in National Environmental Funds
Germany WWF
North-Rhine-Westphalian Foundation for Environment and Development
German Submission on Strategy for Resource Mobilization
BMZ - Cameroon Foundation Tri-Nationale de la Sangha
2005
“Marketing” Environmental Services: Lessons Learned in German Development Co-operation (2005)
ABS Capacity Development Initiative; German bilateral development cooperation projects (e.g. Mexico, Morocco and projects under development in several countries)
ABS‐Capacity Development Initiative
(2014)German TEEB study
(2012)Valuing the benefits of implementing a national strategy on biological diversity—The case of Germany
(2010)Economic reasons for preserving biological diversity
(2004)Valuation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Biodiversity Conservation: An Integrated Hydrological and Economic Model to Value the Enhanced Nitrogen Retention in Renaturated Streams
(1997) National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group, by Statistics Canada
(1998) Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice, by Kluwer Academic
(1999) The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications, by European Commission
(2000) Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting, by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
(2000) The Weight of Nations, by World Resources Institute
(2000) Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach, by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
(2000) MFA in the framework of environmental accounting in Germany, by European Commission
(2002) Environmental Accounts for Water and Waste Water for Germany 1991-1998, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2002) Environmental-Economic Accounting: Fourth and final opinion on the implementation concepts of the Federal Statistical Office, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2002) Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests, by European Commission
(2003) Comparison of environmental economic performance in South Korea and Germany, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2004) Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis, by FAO
(2004) Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting, by Statistics Denmark
(2005) Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests, by Statistical Office of Estonia
(2006) National experiences: Use of indicators from the Environmental-Economic Accounting on material flows for the German National Strategy for Sustainable Development, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2006) On monetary valuation of environmental degradation in the framework of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, by Statistics Germany
(2006) Policy use of Environmental-Economic Accounting in Germany, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2006) Sustainable Development Indicators and Environmental-Economic Accounting, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2008) Economy and the use of environmental resources: explanation of the tables on Environmental-Economic Accounting 2007, by Destatis
(2010) Economy and Use of Environmental Resources: Tables on Environmental-Economic Accounting, by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2013) Economy and Use of Environmental Resources, by DESTATIS
Central, state and provincial, local and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: central 200 (2013), state and local 839 (2009)
Submission 2012
Reports
Mechanisms for Managing Public Environmental Expenditure in Selected OECD Counties
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
Counting sectoral financing
agricultural policy, rural development policy, forestry policy, fisheries policy, settlement and traffic policy, nature-friendly expansion of renewable energy sources, tourism, sport and health
(2014) According to estimates by the German Association of Towns and Municipalities, the public sector awards contracts totalling €256 billion every year. By appropriate steering of its procurement activities, it could support the conservation of biological diversity by using products resulting from sustainable use. It is also the biggest land owner in Germany. For example, 57 per cent of Germany's forests are owned by the public sector (federal: 4%, Lander: 29%, municipalities: 20%, trustee forest: 4%). In general, the public sector has an obligation to live up to its model function and responsibility for sustainably managing and using this land in a way that maintains and fosters biodiversity. The state's activities on the market should also serve to encourage business enterprises and provide an exemplary model for them to follow. Sustainable procurement of timber products has already been implemented by federal authorities on the basis of the Joint Decree of 17 January 2007 by the ministries BMWi, BMEL, BMUB and BMVI, most recently updated in January 2011. This requires federal procurement bodies to demand evidence of forestry management that is not only legal, but also sustainable. The content of the provisions largely refers to the certification standards of PEFC and FSC. The provision served as a model for procurement rules drawn up by numerous Länder, cities and municipalities, and individual companies with a special commitment to the environment. In March 2011 the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development introduced the revised guidance document on “Sustainable Building” as a binding requirement in the Federal Facilities Management Authority. The guide takes account of current building policy requirements and also the reduction target of 30 hectares per day for appropriation of land for settlement and transport purposes. For the first time it requires evidence that plausibly describes the environmental impacts of the building and its overall contribution to sustainable development on the basis of prescribed criteria. On the basis of an assessment approach developed jointly with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen e. V. (DGNB), the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development has improved and refined the criteria and assessment yardsticks for federal construction projects and merged them in the assessment system “Sustainable Building” (Bewertungssystem “Nachhaltiges Bauen” – BNB). Initially devised for the construction of new office and administration buildings, the rules were subsequently applied to work on existing buildings and to planned new school and educational buildings, research establishments and external facilities. The BNB use profile for external facilities explicitly asks about the criterion “biodiversity” and assesses it through the sub-criteria “biodiversity conservation”, “biodiversity development” and “invasive plant species”. In a variety of conversion projects, the Institute for Federal Real Estate (Bundesanstalt für Immobilienaufgaben – BImA) has made substantial contributions to reducing land take, not only through recompaction and development of conversion land in urban agglomerations, but also through measures to reduce surface sealing and dismantle former military infrastructures by way of compensatory measures in non-built-up areas. In future greater attention is to be paid to biodiversity issues in connection with procurement and facility management by means of corporate environmental management systems, especially EMAS (European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme), which has explicitly included the biodiversity indicator since its revision in 2009. A guide to using the new EMAS indicators is currently in preparation as part of a BMUB research project.
(2012) Limited liability for nuclear energy producers, car fleet renewal schemes, reduction of energy tax exemptions for companies, water abstraction charges in North Rhine-Westphalia
(2011) ecological tax reform, greening tax system, environmentally-related taxes, removing environmentally perverse subsidies, environment-related components of the stimulus and consolidation packages, water pricing, environmental goods and services
(2000) Incentive Measures Appropriate to Enhance the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Agrobiodiversity
Counting positive subsidies
Tax deductions, subsidies
Incentive Measures for the Conservation of Agrobiodiversity
Germany Allianz Foundation for Sustainability; German Environment Foundation; Germany Euronatur; German Experience in National Environmental Funds; Germany WWF; North-Rhine-Westphalian Foundation for Environment and Development
Bundesverband Deutscher Stiftungen, Working Group on Environment, Nature and Health
Robert Bosch Stiftung gGmbH, VolkswagenStiftung, Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, Software AG-Stiftung, Joachim Herz Stiftung, Bertelsmann Stiftung, Siemens Stiftung, Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, Stiftung Mercator, Umweltstiftung WWF-Deutschland, Stiftung Mercator
(2014) Exchange between Brazil, India and Germany on TEEB to promote joint learning; global programme 'ValuES' which aims at gathering and sharing methods for integrating ecosystem services into policy, planning, and practice; dialogue on the implementation of the Nagoya Protocol among India, Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, Malaysia, as well as Germany and the EU; the global project 'Blue Solutions' aims at strengthening cooperation and knowledge sharing on the conservation and sustainable use of coastal and marine biodiversity (http://bluesolutions.info); framework agreements on triangular cooperation with Brazil and South Africa
Triangular Cooperation in German Development Cooperation
Employment potential of biological diversity. Sustainable use of biological diversity offers employment opportunities in a large number of industries and fields of activity. On the one hand it offers massive potential for the sustainable development of rural areas, while on the other, it makes an important contribution to local added value. For example, sustainable tourism that is in harmony with nature and landscape and is based on sustainable management, and hence on resource efficiency and climate protection, provides an excellent basis for making a long-term contribution to regional added value and thus to growth and prosperity. At the same time, sustainable tourism caters for growing consumer demands on the quality front and helps companies to stand up to competition. Strengthening sustainable tourism in rural areas is therefore a special key area for the Federal Environment Ministry. With about 130 national natural landscapes (national parks, biosphere reserves and nature parks) covering about one third of its land area, Germany offers excellent conditions for experiencing nature with great recreation and leisure value. A study by the University of Wurzburg for the BMUB revealed that Germany's 14 national parks alone are visited by about 50.9 million people a year. This involves a gross sales revenue of around €2.1 billion, thereby creating or safeguarding about 70,000 jobs in these regions. At present a similar study is in progress on the 16 biosphere reserves in Germany. The number of jobs in Germany in the organic farming sector, including further processing and sale of the relevant products, has risen to 180,000. In 2011 Germany remained the biggest organic food market in Europe, with sales of €6.6 billion, and the upward trend is continuing. Employment in the field of regrowable raw materials is showing a marked increase. Gross employment in this sector (excluding use of timber) in 2011 was estimated at 224,400 jobs.
Particularly in tropical developing countries, illegal felling is a major cause of deforestation and adverse effects on forests, and therefore results in loss of biological diversity. It also runs counter to the interests of climate protection and poverty alleviation. The EU FLEGT action plan sets out to combat illegal felling. It aims to support the developing countries in their efforts to bring about responsible timber and forestry management by establishing an extensive licensing system and making voluntary trade partnership agreements. An EU Regulation concerning forest law enforcement, governance and trade (EU FLEGT Regulation) has been adopted to implement the FLEGT action plan. In Germany the EU Regulation entered into force on 15 July 2011 in the form of the Act prohibiting trade in illegally felled timber (Holzhandels-Sicherungs-Gesetz – HolzSiG). This regulates Germany's national controls on imports of timber from countries which have signed partnership agreements with the EU on illegal felling – to date these are Ghana, the Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Indonesia and Liberia. Under these agreements the partner countries set up an approval and licensing system to ensure that only legally felled timber is exported to the EU. The second stage follows with the transposition of the EU Timber Regulation of 20 October 2010, which has been fully applicable since 3 March 2013. This regulation prohibits the marketing of illegally felled timber and requires all market participants who place timber and timber products on the EU market for the first time to comply with certain due diligence obligations. These include duties to provide information on the nature and origin of the timber and procedures for assessing and reducing the risk that timber could originate from illegal felling. In Germany appropriate additions have been made to the Timber Trade Security Act. First checks have been carried out by the competent authority, the Federal Institute for Food and Agriculture (Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung – BLE). In March 2013 the Thünen Centre of Competence on the Origin of Timber was established. This develops scientific methods for supervising the new provisions and provides assistance for public authorities, the timber trade, associations and consumers.
Skills for green jobs
Environmental pressures from German imports and exports. Results of the Environmental-Economic Accounting on embodied energy, carbon dioxide and transport of goods (2007), by German Federal Statistical Office
CO2-content of German imports and exports (2010), by Federal Statistical Office of Germany
(2014) NGOs, foundation, and academia biodiversity expenditure: 170 million euro (2010)
(2014) Enterprise Biological Diversity 2020 (the Federal Environment Ministry, the Federation of German Industry (BDI), the German Industry and Trade Council (DIHK), the Federal Economics Ministry (BMWi), the initiative “Biodiversity in Good Company” (BiGC), econsense, the Global Nature Fund (GNF, coordinator of the European Business and Biodiversity Campaign), the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) and the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the Federal Association of the Energy and Water Industries (BDEW), the German Retail Trade Association (HDE), the Association for Environmental Management and Sustainability in Financial Institutions (VFU) and the nature conservation associations Bund fur Umwelt- und Naturschutz Deutschland (BUND), Naturschutzbund Deutschland (NABU) and WWF Deutschland.)
(2014) Private, Market biodiversity expenditure (2009)
Business and Biodiversity Initiative
Private Foundations
(2011) Corporate social responsibility
(2010) Germany review
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit and Bundesministerium für Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung
(2011) ODA, International Climate Initiative, Global Climate Partnership Fund
Organic farm (1994-2010), 5.9 percent of agricultural land used for organic farming. Percentage of forestry land certified (2000-2011) by PEFC (Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes) and FSC (Forest Stewardship Council): in 2011, PEFC-certified forests about 70%, and FSC-certified forests about 5% of the total forest area in Germany
Organic farming, forest certification
(2014) No net loss policies and offsetting in Germany
(2010, 2011) Impact mitigation regulations, Status 2011, Impact Mitigation Regulations (IMR)
(2011) Export credits
Comprehensive debt conversion program
Debt for Nature Swaps in German Financial Co-operation

Greece
agri-environmental measures
Implementation of E.U. Regulation 2078/92 for agricultural practices compatible with the need for environmental protection and nature conservation
Greece 2014
Climate assistance
(2012) Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
(2001) Natural Resources Accounts and Environmental Input-Output Tables for Greece 1988 – 1998, by European Commission
(2014) Central and location biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 53.32 (2007), 57.75 (2008), 48.8 (2009), 76.11 (2010), 103.06 (2011), 95.55 (2012), 110.74 (2013)
Pilot survey for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry - Reference year 2001
Report
public environment expenditure
Pilot survey for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry Reference year 2001 (2004), by European Commission
(2012) Reduced VAT rate for drinking water in Greece
(2009) environment-related taxes, access fees to national parks, environmental subsidies
(1999) Incentives for the Conservation of the Nesting Grounds of the Sea Turtle Caretta Caretta in Laganas Bay, Zakynthos, Greece
Tax incentives, cash subsidies, petrol tax
National Fund to Combat Desertification
Stavros Niarchos Foundation
environment and employment, trade and endangered species
(2014) NGOs, foundation, and academia biodiversity expenditure in million euros: 0.28 (2007), 0.115 (2008), 0.475 (2009), 0.995 (2010), 1.355 (2011), 1.4 (2012), 1.225 (2013)
(2014) Private and market biodiversity expenditure (2007-2013)
(2009) corporate social responsibility
(2011) Greece review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(2009) environmental development assistance
export credits

Iceland
2017
OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: Iceland 2017. This review assesses the performance of Iceland, including looking at how Iceland works in its three partner countries and on key priority issues such as gender, health, education and renewable energy. Iceland joined the Development Assistance Committee in 2013. This is its first peer review.

2012
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Climate assistance
Icelandic Development Agency (ICEIDA)
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Commercial Exploitation of Wild Fish Stocks (2000), by International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET)

Ireland
2014
The budget allocated for the National Parks and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government for the years 2002-2004 was €69.636m. Ireland's National Development Plan 2007-2013 (NDP) allocated €167 million the Natural Heritage Sub-Programme, €4.7 billion for the Water Services Sub-Programme. Almost €2.5 billion was spent on the Rural Development Strategy and Programme from 1994 to 2007.
National Development Plan 2007-2013; Rural Development Strategy and Programme 2007-2013 (RDP), Ireland’s overseas development assistance (ODA) and biodiversity
2012
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Rural Environment Protection Scheme (REPS); Rural Environment Protection Scheme –agri-environmental measures
2009
Economic value of biodiversity
2009
water pricing, environmentally related taxes, tax concessions, subsidies
Promoting environmental performance of industry
Ireland review
Department of Foreign Affairs
Irish Aid Environment Policy for Sustainable Development
National Pensions Reserve Fund
Environmental dimensions of national investment plans
The budget for the NPWS (not including salaries) increased from Eur 22 million in 2002 to Eur 34 million in 2007 to EUR 47 million in 2008.
2005
Environment and Poverty Reduction, Key Sheet 1, Irish Aid, 2005
Environmental Accounts for Ireland 1996-2003 (2005), by Central Statistics Office
2002
NBSAP2002
Climate assistance
Benefits and costs of biodiversity
The Economic and Social Aspects of Biodiversity: Benefits and Costs of Biodiversity in Ireland
Environmental tax system, payments
Implementing Environmental Fiscal Reform: Income Distribution and Sectoral Competitiveness Issues - Income Distribution Concerns in relation to compensation in Ireland

Israel
Agri-environmental schemes
No2010
Markets for eco-tourism
Economic aspects
The budget of the Nature and Parks Authority for biodiversity activities is about $10 million (2008)
budget and expenditure for environmental protection, public expenditure on biodiversity
National Sustainable Development Strategy, and Ministry activity within the NCSD; environmental quality and sustainable use of resources; forestry; agriculture; regional planning; research, monitoring and education
green public procurement, green dimension of government budgets, taxation policy and the environment, environmentally harmful subsides to fossil fuel production and consumption, agriculture, and car ownership and use, levies, fees and fines
Jewish National Fund, energy efficiency fund, Maintenance of Cleanliness Fund
corporate social responsibility
The Israel Export Insurance Corporation, Ltd

Italy
Rural Development Program 2007-2013- Axe 2 “Environment”: State of progress for measure of public expenditure and comparison with total RDP. Update at 31-12-13.
Rural Development Plans 2007-2013
UNEP: Financing the Future: Report of the Italian National Dialogue on Sustainable Finance, December 2016 Italy 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance, international flows from private and market, not-for-profit organizations (2006)
NBSAP2011
Biodiversity adaptation to climate change
Climate assistance
2012
Submission 2012
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Fondazione Cariplo, Fondazione Cassa dei Risparmi di Forli, Fondazione Cassa di Bolzano, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Bologna, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Cuneo, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Lucca, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Pistoia e Pescia, Fondazione Monte dei Paschi di Siena
Employements, direct and indirect, generated by PAs system. Source: Federparchi on ISTAT data., 2011. To date in whole Italian economy (both public and private), “green” employed – or so called green jobs – are more than 3 million. Beside other 3 million and 700000 are those triggered by green economy. Without considering agriculture, 328,000 companies in Italy, with more than one employed, will invest in 2014 in green technologies in order to save energy and to mitigate environmental impacts, representing about 22% of national companies. This should generate 38% of new jobs anticipated (216,500 on a total of 563,400)(Fondazione Symbola - Unioncamere, 2013).
Expanding green sectors, promoting environmental skills
(2013) Business investment in environmental protection, corporate social responsibility
(2009) Italy review
Direzione Generale per la Cooperazione allo Sviluppo
(2013) ODA and the environment
Trend in the number of companies and UAA under organic farming (1990-2011), Certified forest areas in Italy according to the schemes PEFC and FSC (1998-2012). At the end of 2009 about 12% of national forested areas have been acknowledged under at least one of the two certification schemes, PEPC (Programme for the Endrosement of Forest Certification) or FSC (Forest Stewardship Council). By the end of 2012 forested areas with the double certification totalled to 34,725 ha, with 5,800 in Tuscany, 16,347 in Lombardia and 12,578 in Trentino.
Organic Agriculture in Protected Areas: The Italian Experience (2010)
Voluntary certification
(1997) National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group, by Statistics Canada
(2004) Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting, by Statistics Denmark
(2000) Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach, by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
(2000) Integrating Fishing Accounting into the Italian System of National Accounts, by University of York, UK
(2005) Development policies and the environment: using environmental accounts for better decision making, by Ministero dell'Economia e delle Finanze
(2014) State biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 872.46 (2006), 878.76 (2007), 972.6 (2008), 969.32 (2009). Central and state: 1,378.99 (2010), 1,889.38 (2011), 1,813.48 (2012); Availability of Financial Resources in Italy in 2010-2012 (“Biodiversity protection” and “Sustainable use and management”)
The first Italian EPEA for waste and wastewater management
Submission 2012
Government expenditure on environmental protection
Counting sectoral financing
rural development and agriculture, forests, fishing, quarries and mines, tourism, human health policies related to biodiversity, food security
(2012) Irrigation subsidies, pay-as-you-throw schemes in Italy
(2013) Greening the tax system, tax concessions, Environmental components of the 2011-12 fiscal consolidation and growth packages, green public procurement
Environmental tax system
Reforming Energy and Transport Subsidies: Environmental and Economic Implications - Environmental Implications of Supports to the electricity Sector in Italy
Strategic Fund
(2013) Export credits
With regard to debt conversion, the Italian Cooperation promoted the signing of several agreements for the beginning of programs for the protection of biodiversity and the development of renewable energy. It is recalled, just to give an example, the agreement between Italy and Ecuador, signed by the two countries in June 2012, which provides for the conversion of a part of Ecuador's debt amounted to EUR 35 million against Italy in contribution to the Trust Fund established at UNDP. The Fund will have to manage the initiative for the protection of the Ecuadorian Yasuni Park in order to prevent the exploitation of oil in the Ecuadorian park, which is covered by about one million of hectares of forest, and considered as one of the planet's biodiversity. The Park has been also recognized as UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.

Liechtenstein
Climate assistance
Liechtenstein
Sustainable farming
forest, agriculture, land use planning, tourism, research (basic research, applied research), education and public outreach (education at schools, public information, cooperation with private institutions and NGOs)

Luxembourg
agri-environmental contracts
agricultural land under contracts “biodiversity”
NBSAP2007
(2012) Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Climate assistance
land use, agriculture / forestry
(2012) Reduced VAT rate for food in Luxembourg
(2009) water pricing and charges, environmentally related taxes
employment and environment
Trade in endangered species
(2012) Luxembourg review
Luxembourg
(2009) ODA and environment
certification systems for sustainable forest management
compensation programmes for biotopes destroyed by public works
National environmental compensation
Reports
public expenditure on environmental protection
(2009) Export credits

Malta
National Rural Development Plans (RDP)
NBSAP2012
agriculture & rural development, fisheries & aquaculture, tourism, air quality, climate change, development control and land use planning, water
(2012) Indirect subsidy to rock extraction in Malta
Environmental Taxes
Research fund for research work on local biodiversity
organic farming, eco-certification
Environmental Accounts (EPEA)
Report

Monaco

Netherlands
Netherlands 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2010)
2017
OECD Development Co-operation Peer Reviews: The Netherlands 2017

2012
Submission
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
2004
Ecological Effectiverness of Agri-Environment Schemes in Difference Agricultural Landscapes in the Netherlands (2004)
2003
agri-environmental measures
NBSAP1995, 2000, 2008
Insights from the 4th Global Biodiversity Outlook for monitoring, accounting and valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services, by Marcel Kok, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Emission Reduction Units (EMUs) Permit Trading (ERUPT); Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Biodiversity offsets
Climate assistance
Payment for biodiversity
Green Investment Funds: PIM Project
Central and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of euro: 301.2 (2007), 419.6 (2008), 465.4 (2009), 551.2 (2010)
Environmental protection expenditure accounts for the Netherlands
Environmental protection expenditures from the Netherlands in foreign countries
Environmental protection expenditures of households home improvement
EPE estimation method for NACE (45-96)
Submission 2012
Reports
Environmental expenditure
Counting sectoral financing
agriculture, education, health, rural development, forestry, fishery, mining, tourism, finance, trade, industry
(2014) Large environmentally harmful subsidies are especially found in the energy, transport (red diesel) and agricultural sectors (low VAT on meat and dairy), in 2010, in the Netherlands, representing between 5 and 10 billion euros. The Dutch Government could abolish certain environmentally harmful subsidies at a national level, but for competition reasons this would require agreements at a European or global scale. Green taxes contributed almost 14% to the total tax revenue of the Netherlands. The revenues from green taxes have more than doubled since the late eighties.
(2014) Environmental fees, Environmental taxation, VAMIL/MIA (fiscal provision/facility to stimulate private sector investments in environmental friendly assets): http://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/BrochureMilieulijst%202013.pdf; Government procurement (central, provincial, municipal, education etc.)
(2012) Absence of road pricing for freight and passenger transport, company car taxation, elimination of reduced excise tax rate for diesel used in agricultural machinery, income tax deductions for commuters in the Netherlands
(2000) Improving the Environment through Reducing Subsidies (2000) - Environmental Effects of Changes in Taxation and Support to Agriculture
(2003) water charges, environmental taxes, environmentally harmful effects of subsidies, green taxes, environmental charges, hunting licence fees, environmentally related fiscal measures
Counting positive subsidies
Ecotaxes, tax exemptions, high VAT-taxes, accelerated depreciation, Green funds scheme
Environmental taxes at industry level; quality improvement
Adessium Foundation, Dutch Postcode Lottery, European Climate Foundation, Stichting DOEN, Stichting Fonds 1818, Turing Foundation
Programme for South-South Cooperation between Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH)
Environmental employment, Trade, tropical timber, endangered species
Environmental employment in the Netherlands, 1997 (2000), by European Commission
Green Growth in the Netherlands (2011), by Statistics Netherlands
(2014) Subsidie Biodiversiteit en Bedrijfsleven (Subsidy Biodiversity and Business) - a (50-50) co-financing system: http://www.rvo.nl/subsidies-regelingen/subsidieregeling-biodiversiteit-bedrijfsleven; VCA (Verfified Conservation Areas’s) funding; Green deals: http://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/2013/12/Folder%20Green%20Deals%20-%20Engels.pdf; Platform BEE (Businesses, Ecosystems and Economy); Business-biodiversity Partnerships: Communities of Practice, Cooperation on Transparency on Natural and Social Capital
Green deals
(2012) TEEB for Business – The Netherlands
Best Practices in Sustainable Finance: ABN AMRO, Rabobank, Triodos Bank
(2011) Netherlands review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (DGIS), International Policy Programme Biodiversity of the Netherlands: 2002 -2006
(2003) Environmental ODA
Increasing area used for organic farming in the Netherlands (1994-2012): organic farming which is still only 2.6% of the total land used within the agricultural sector. Forest area (ha) in the Netherlands with a FSC-label (1996-2012). certification label approved by the Timber Procurement Assessment Committee (TPAC). To date the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification schemes (PEFC), Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme (MTCS) and Timber Legality & Traceability Verification (TLTV). No less than 65.7% of timber products sold in the Netherlands was FSC or PEFC certified in 2011. The consumption of Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) labeled fish is increasing.
Counting government procurement
Green Investment Funds: Organic Farming (1997)
Market Creation: Organic Agriculture in the Netherlands (2002)
policy programme ‘Biodiversity works: for nature, for people, forever’
An International Market-Based Instrument to Finance Biodiversity Conservation: Towards a Green Development Mechanism (2009)
Financing Sustainable Forest Management (2008)
(2014) No net loss policies and offsetting in the Netherlands
Trees for travel, Support to offset program
ABS Capacity Development Initiative for Africa
ABS Capacity Development Initiative for Africa
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (http://www.biodiversiteit.nl/teeb), Digital Agenda Natural Capital (DANK)
The Dutch Government commissioned the TEEB studies (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) in 2011. These studies aim to support the decision-making process for policy-making and large investment projects of government, business and civil society. The results of the TEEB-study ‘Green, healthy and productive’ among others indicate that investing in green spaces, particularly in urban areas, reduces health care costs and absenteeism at work, which may represent an economic value of hundreds of millions of euro’s. The TEEBstudy ‘Green pays off with TEEB city’ (Groen loont met TEEB stad) indicated that integration of green-blue developments within spatial plans provides large net social returns, such as savings on health care costs, increased value of real estate, savings on energy costs and savings in disposal and purification costs of rainwater. The benefits are about 1.5 to 2 times higher than the costs for investment and maintenance. ‘Natural Capital Agenda 2013’ The Agenda aims at: (I) Sustainable production and consumption: sustainable trade chains; (II) Sustainable fisheries and protection of marine biodiversity; (III) Sustainable agriculture and protection of biodiversity; (IV) Natural capital accounting.
1. Green space and health
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Extraction of natural gas from the Wadden Sea, Self-financing of marine protected areas in the Netherlands Antilles (Netherlands, 2006)
Global estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units
The Empirics of Wetland Valuation: A Comprehensive Summary and a Meta-Analysis of the Literature
Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
Readings in International Environment Statistics (1993), by UNECE
The Weight of Nations (2000), by World Resources Institute
Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach (2000), by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
Taking the Environment into Account: the NAMEA Approach (1996), by Review of Income and Wealth
Measurement and Valuation of Natural Gas and Oil Reserves in the Netherlands (1998), by Statistics Netherlands
Water Companies and the Protection of the Environment and Nature, 1990-1997 (2000), by European Commission
Integrated River Basin Accounting in the Netherlands and the European Water Framework Directive (2005), by IOS Press
Environmental accounts of the Netherlands 2009 (2010), by Statistics Netherlands
APG
(2003) environmental agreements, Scheme for Free Depreciation on Environmental Investments and the Environmental Investment Allowance

New Zealand

OECD's third Environmental Performance Review of New Zealand (2017). The Predator Free New Zealand 2050 Initiative. 32% of New Zealand's territory and 30% of the Exclusive Economic Zone are under environmental protection. Indigenous biodiversity on private land is declining. Organic farming is barely developed. Transferable quota system for commercial and customary fisheries. New Zealand uses bonds, mitigation trust and insurance to to ensure environmental remediation and restoration of ecosystems related to future damage, but government has no way to recover costs from responsible parties if it takes a remediation action itself. New Zealand government's Guide to Sustainable Procurement (2010). Green certification. Environmentally related taxes, energy and vehicle taxes and charges, GHG emissions trading schemes, tradable fishing quotas, fossil fuel subsidy reform, financial support to agriculture, investing in the environment to promote green growth, contributing to the global sustainable development agenda, mainstreaming environmental considerations in international trade and development cooperation, etc.
New Zealand 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance, other public funds (2006-2012)
Case studies for landscape beauty markets: Ecotourism concessions
The Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) covers all sectors as of 2013. However, not all sectors have obligations to surrender units, e.g. agriculture just has to report on levels of emissions. Applied to forestry, it encourages the replanting of forests, mainly as production forests, and the promotion of regeneration of shrublands. The ETS also limits the ability to deforest areas of forest land and there are financial penalties where Crown cover drops below 30% of a hectare and/or areas are reduced by more than 2 hectares within a 5-year period. Two additional schemes exist as an option to earn revenue from carbon forests (Permanent Forest Sink Initiative and the Afforestation Grants Scheme). A nutrient trading scheme operates to reduce the nitrogen load to Lake Taupo (Taupomoana) by 20%. Farms occupy only 18% of the land near Taupo but contribute more than 90% of the nitrogen input to the lake (Rutherford & Cox 2009). The scheme uses the Overseer® model to determine how much nitrogen is leaving farms and entering the lake. The percentage reduction in nutrients will be set and the transfer of discharge consents between land-users will be allowed for within the bounds set by the cap on nutrient inputs. Community sewage is controlled outside the market. Forestry companies are excluded from the market because exports from forestry are similar to the natural and uncontrollable exports from native forest and scrub. There is an $81.5 million fund to protect lake water quality and purchase nitrogen discharge allowances and/or farmland (ibid).
Delivering and Tracking Climate Change Related ODA
New Zealand's climate funding
NBSAP2000
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
New Zealand’s natural heritage provides a wide and valuable range of ecosystem services. While work on calculating the value of these services is ongoing, a preliminary study has estimated that New Zealand’s land-based ecosystem services contributed $57 billion to human welfare in 2012. This study assessed that the main categories of these ecosystem services and values were supporting services ($22b), regulating services ($15b), provisioning services ($28b), cultural services ($1b), and passive values ($12b). Another angle of important social research has been the value of specific conservation activities, such as volunteering. An example of such work is a survey of 362 Department of Conservation community partners. This survey identified the types and benefits of partnership arrangements, and estimated the value of the resources they contribute to conservation activities. The study looked at 6,232 volunteers who gave 174,812 hours of labour over a year. This equated to around 233 full-time equivalent volunteers. The volunteers carried out a wide range of activities, with 58.3% involved in ecological restoration, 57.8% in conservation awareness and publicity, and 55.3% in pest control. Their total annual income was found to be around $12 million. For every $1 of government funding received by groups, they also received on average $1.34 of income from nongovernment sources. The total financial value contributed by the groups over 12 months was estimated at $15.8 million. The direct output losses caused by pest impacts on primary production have been estimated at $1.15 billion per year.
The New Zealand Treasury has produced the Living Standards Framework (www.treasury.govt.nz/abouttreasury/higherlivingstandards), which goes beyond GDP to incorporate a range of material and non-material factors that impact on wellbeing (including natural capital) in its definition of Living Standards. This Framework is centred on four main capital stocks— financial/physical, human, social, and natural. It describes the interrelationships among the stocks and flows, and highlights the need for responsible management in order to improve the living standards of both current and future New Zealanders. It identifies biodiversity, as well as the atmosphere, freshwater, soil, and fish stocks, as being of particular importance to living standards in New Zealand.
Valuing biodiversity
The value of conservation: What does conservation contribute to the economy? (2006)
Valuing Biodiversity Enhancement
Economic Value of Biodiversity in New Zealand: Results from a Household Survey
value of ecosystem services
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
Physical Flow Account for Forestry Resources in New Zealand 1995-2000 (2002), by Statistics New Zealand
Monetary Flow Account for Forestry Resources in New Zealand 1996-1999 (2003), by Statistics New Zealand
Physical Flow Account for Fish Resources in New Zealand 1998-2001 (2003), by Statistics New Zealand
Fish Monetary Stock Account: 1996–2009 (2010), by Statistics New Zealand
(2014) Central and municipal biodiversity expenditure in million NZD: 763.97 (2006), 761.13 (2007), 881.36 (2008), 917.24 (2009), 841.09 (2011). Central 729.87 (2010), 827.47 (2012)
(2014) Annual ‘Vote Conservation’ and ‘Vote Environment’ appropriations (source: www.treasury.govt.nz/budget/votehistory/envir/, downloaded November 2013)(2009-10 to 2013-14)
Reports
(2007) expenditure on bio-security, public environmental expenditure
(2003) Environmental Protection Expenditure Account for the Public Sector: Years ended June 2001 to June 2003, by Statistics New Zealand
industry, agriculture, education, rural development, forestry, fisheries, mining, tourism
There are no direct subsidies to the fishing industry or to commercial forest management. Subsidy reform initially had a positive impact on biodiversity by reducing the use of fertilisers and pesticides, and decreasing pollution levels in rivers and reducing the farming of land with lower agricultural values. However, with the intensification of agriculture, especially dairy farming, in recent years, pollution and biodiversity concerns have renewed.
Cost recovery charges, tax exemptions
Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects - Subsidy Reform in the New Zealand Agricultural Sector
Conservation of the Pae O Te Rangi Area
Removal of agricultural and fisheries subsidies
greening of government procurement, phasing-out of agricultural support
Nature Heritage Fund, Nga Whenua Rahui, Biodiversity Advice Fund, Biodiversity Condition Fund, Queen Elizabeth II National Trust (QEII)
Giving New Zealand: Philanthropic Funding 2011
Grantmaking in New Zealand: Giving That Works - National Survey of New Zealand Grantmaking Practice – 2013
Tindall Foundation, JR McKenzie Trust, Vodafone foundation
Quota Management System (QMS), which is based on Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) within a Total Allowable Catch (TAC). The TAC takes into account recreational fishing, customary Māori uses, and other sources of fishing-related mortality. The remainder is available to the commercial sector as the Total Allowable Commercial Catch (TACC) that the commercial fishing industry can catch during that year. Commercial fishing vessels must be registered under the Fisheries Act 1996, but vessel numbers are not restricted. By 2016, all vessels operating within the EEZ will need to be New Zealand flagged.
Notes
trade and environment (endangered species, timber)
(2015) The Sustainable Business Council is a CEO-led group of companies that play a leading role in creating a sustainable future for business, society, and the environment. Through the activities of groups such as the Sustainable Business Council, businesses become more aware of opportunities associated with ‘greening’ the economy. There has been growth in effort in the business, tourism, and research sectors at mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services, and balancing values across environmental, socio-cultural, and economic drivers to improve social wellbeing and ensure sustainable practices. An example of business balancing these values is the Sustainable Dairying: Water Accord. New Zealand’s largest dairy company, Fonterra, has developed this Accord, under which the dairy cooperative members are required to protect riparian margins from stock and reduce effluent flow into waterways. Compliance under the previous accord (Dairying and Clean Streams Accord) was found to be variable in 2010/11. Through a partnership agreement, the Department of Conservation and Fonterra are working together with the local community to improve the natural habitats of five key waterways in significant dairying regions around New Zealand to make a difference to the water quality in five sensitive catchments: Kaipara Harbour, Firth of Thames, Waikato Peat Lakes, Lake Ellesmere (Te Waihora), and Awarua-Waituna (www.doc.govt.nz/getting-involved/partnerships-anddonations/partnerships/fonterra-partnership/).
Conservation on Private Lands
Protection of Natural Heritage on Private Land
grant funds to encourage biodiversity protection on private land, private environmental expenditure
(2010) New Zealand review: International Aid & Development Agency
forest certification, fishery quota management system, official organic assurance programme
Ecological compensation, encompassing biodiversity offsets and mitigation, is increasingly being offered in New Zealand as a form of environmental redress and is set as a condition of approval for development to occur. Brown et al. (2013) investigated compliance with 245 conditions relating to ecological compensation set under the Resource Management Act across 81 case studies. They found overall compliance in 64.8% of cases, demonstrating that the anticipated benefits from ecological compensation mechanisms are not being achieved in approximately one-third of cases. Since 2009, there has been a multiagency programme of work to investigate the concept of biodiversity offsetting in New Zealand. Biodiversity offsets seek to counter-balance the unavoidable impacts of development on biodiversity by enhancing the state of biodiversity elsewhere, and are defined as: Measurable conservation outcomes resulting from actions designed to compensate for significant residual adverse biodiversity impacts arising from project development after appropriate prevention and mitigation measures have been taken. The goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss and preferably a net gain of biodiversity on the ground. (BOP 2012). What differentiates biodiversity offsetting from other forms of impact management is that it requires: A mitigation hierarchy to be followed to identify the residual adverse effects that may be offset; Explicit measurement and balancing of biodiversity that is predicted to be lost and gained; and A goal of no net loss and preferably a net gain of biodiversity to be reasonably demonstrated and then achieved on the ground. Guidance on Good Practice Biodiversity Offsetting in New Zealand is to be released in early 2014 as a non-statutory document to inform developers and decision-makers about good practice in demonstrating no net loss via a robust biodiversity offsetting process. It is supported by a series of detailed technical resources that are intended for offset designers, and practitioners will provide tools to address the drawdown of natural capital associated with development projects.
Resource Management Act of 1991
Strongman Coalmine offset project, Status on offsets 2011
Anti-cancer agent: Halichondrin B from the New Zealand marine sponge, Lyssodendoryx species
Measures
New Zealand Superannuation Fund

Norway
2017
Storebrand, Norway's largest private pension fund, launched two new fossil-free funds at value of 2 billion Norwegian crowns ($234 million) and 750 million crowns, April 2017. A report this month from Dutch consultancy Profundo on the exposure of the insurance industry to all kinds of fossil fuels found the 15 largest European insurance companies invest more than $130 billion in fossil fuel companies. Eleven of these insurers also continue to underwrite fossil fuel projects. They include Germany's Allianz and AXA of France, which the report found were most exposed to fossil fuels, with fossil fuel investments of $59 billion and $34 billion respectively. It added the estimates were conservative. But AXA Investment Managers, which manages money for the French insurer and for external clients, on Tuesday announced it was planning to pull out of companies that derive more than half their revenue from coal-related activities. This follows AXA’s announcement in 2015 that it would remove around 500 million euros of coal investments from its insurance portfolio.
Compensation payments for voluntary forest conservation
(2016)
The place of the oceans in Norway’s foreign and development policy: Meld. St. 22 (2016–2017) Report to the Storting (white paper). Establish a development programme with a budget of NOK 100 million to combat marine litter and microplastics; this will include steps to reduce waste quantities and improve waste management; allocate over NOK 5 billion to climate-related measures through the development assistance budget in 2017, in order to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on the oceans; increase support for sustainable blue growth as part of its development policy by providing more funding for the Fish for Development programme. The new research vessel RV Dr Fridtjof Nansen will make it possible to significantly step up Norway's assistance for ecosystem-based marine management in developing countries
(2014)
Norway 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2012), (additional information), 2012 monitoring of resources
National budget contains sustainability indicators, including biodiversity indicators based on the Nature Index
European Free Trade Association (EFTA) ministers in June 2010 decided that a chapter on trade and sustainable development was to be included in all future trade agreements. The agreement between EFTA and Peru includes an article on measures related to biodiversity in the chapter on protection of intellectual property. Similarly, the agreement between EFTA and Costa Rica and Panama incorporates a similar article on measures related to the protection of biodiversity and traditional knowledge in the annex on intellectual property rights, in addition to the chapter on trade and sustainable development in the main agreement.
The white paper Towards greener development (Meld. St. 14 (2010–2011)) provides a framework for cooperation between the Ministry of Climate and Environment and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on environment in development cooperation. The government’s intitative on climate and energy (Energy+), the Clean Energy for Development initiative and Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (budget of around USD 500 million a year since 2008). The programme Oil for Development aims to transfer Norwegian expertise assisting developing countries to manage their petroleum resources in a way that promotes lasting poverty alleviation and incorporates environmental concerns. Biodiversity considerations are incorporated through land-use planning, environmental impact assessments, mapping and monitoring of species and habitats and vulnerability analyses.
2013
Natural benefits – on the values of ecosystem services: Report from an expert commission appointed by the Norwegian Government to the Ministry of the Environment on 29 August 2013, Official Norwegian Report NOU 2013: 10 Summary.
Norway 2013 review
2012 Submission
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Climate assistance
Market/non-market instruments; and ODA, by Bente Herstad, Director, Dept. of Climate, Environment and Natural Resources, Norad, Norway
2011
Economic benefits provided by biodiversity and ecosystem services
payments to farmers
Norway submission on resource mobilization indicators
Norway submission on monitoring of resources
Norway submission on innovative financial mechanisms: letter; Can Markets Protect Biodiversity? an Evaluation of Different Financial Mechanisms, by Arild Vatn, et al. Noragric Report No. 60, June 2011, Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, UMB. Milder et al. (2010) estimate the volume of PES to be about 1,460 million USD/yr. Of this about 87 per cent is used in developed countries. A somewhat surprising finding is that as much as 99 per cent of payments derive from public sources, while this percentage is 97 for developing countries. In all the cases studied, payments go to land-owners, implying that they are implicitly granted the right to existing prac-tices. High transaction costs seem to be a core explanation for the extensive involvement of public authorities. Several developing countries have established Conservation Trust Funds to operate as intermediaries between ‘buyers’ and ‘sellers’, with the aim of attracting private funds. However, public funds dominate even in these cases.
Norad and Norfund
corporate social responsibility
generational accounting and the fiscal rule, environmentally related taxes, environmentally harmful subsides, taxation of farm inputs, green public procurement, fishery subsidies, individual vessel quotas
Expenditure on nature and outdoor recreation
Ministry of Environment, County governor, County councils in millions of NOK: 2376.94 (2006), 2594.76 (2007), 2969.01 (2008), 3568.46 (2009), 3698.89 (2010)
Valuation of Benefits Connected to Conservation or Improvement of Environmental Quality in Local Watercourses in Norway
The Norwegian Master Plan for Water Resources - A National Co-Ordinated Plan for Non-Developed Hydropower Sources: Application of a multicriteria approach
Socio-economic importance of ecosystem services in the Nordic Countries: Marine Ecosystem Services in the Barents Sea and Lofoten Islands, a scoping assessment
Methodology work for environmental protection investment and current expenditures in the manufacturing industry
Ministry of Children and Equality (BLD), Ministry of Finance (FIN), Ministry of Fisheries and Coastal Affairs (FKD), Ministry of Defence (FD), Ministry of Health and Care Services (HOD), Ministry of Justice and the Police (JPD), Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development (KRD), Ministry of Culture and Church Affairs (KKD), Ministry of Education and Research (KD), Ministry of Agriculture and Food (LMD), Ministry of Trade and Industry (NHD), Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (OED), Ministry of Transport and Communications (SD)
Counting sectoral financing
2007
The Economic Case for Investing in Environment - A Review of Policies, Practice and Impacts of relevance to Norwegian Partner Countries, NORAD, May 2007
2006
Environment and international trade, investment and business
From natural resources and environmental accounting to construction of indicators for sustainable development (2006), by Statistics Norway
Natural resources and the environment 2005 (2006), by Statistics Norway
Pilot studies for the development of Environmental Accounting: Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NOREEA) Project (2006), by European Commission
International experiences with "green GDP" (2006), by Statistics Norway
Greening public procurement
2005
Pilot studies for the development of Environmental Accounting: Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NOREEA) Project 2005 - Final report Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
2004
Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NOREEA) Project 2003 - Final Report to Eurostat (2004), by European Commission
2003
Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NOREEA) Project 2003
Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NORREA) Project 2003
Pilot studies for the development of Environmental Accounting: Norwegian Economic and Environmental Accounts (NORREA) Project 2005
Methodology work for environmental protection investment and current expenditure in the manufacturing industry (2002), by European Commission
2002
Norwegian Economic and Environment Accounts (NOREEA) Project Report 2002 (2002), by Statistics Norway
Environmental Protection Expenditure - 2002 data for Manufacturing, Mining and Quarrying, and Steam and Hot Water Supply; Methodological work for the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry (NACE 11) and preliminary figures for 2002
2001
Norwegian Economic and Environment Accounts (NOREEA) Phase 2 (2001), by Statistics Norway
Norwegian Economic and Environment Accounts (NOREEA) Project Report – 2001 (2001), by Statistics Norway
2000
Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
1998
Subsidies in World Fisheries: A Reexamination (1998) – Norway
1997
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
1996
Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
1994
Natural Resource Accounting: The Norwegian Approach (1994), by Statistics Norway
1987 Natural Resource Accounting and Analysis: The Norwegian Experience 1978-1986 (1987), by Statistics Norway
Environmentally related taxes in Norway
Environmental Goods and Services Sector, NAMEA, Air and Environmental Related Taxes, (Activity Report)
Expand the NAMEA Environmental related tax accounts
Green taxes and fees, review of subsidies, pesticide tax, green public procurement
Reforming Energy and Transport Subsidies: Environmental and Economic Implications - The Market Reforms in the Norwegian Electricity Sector
Subsidy Reform and Sustainable Development: Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects - Subsidy Reform in the Norwegian Fisheries Sector
Forest Trust Fund
Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation
Organic farming, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Standard
Norwegian Prawns to Spice Up Chinese Noodles
Government Pension Fund

Portugal
Program for Rural Development in Mainland Portugal
Climate assistance
NBSAP2001
(2012) Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
The annual budget of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature in million Euros: 37.17 (2001), 36.46 (2002), 31.37 (2003), 27.64 (2004), 26.43 (2005), 28.45 (2006), 22.39 (2007), 24.34 (2008), 18.63 (2009)
Public expenditure on biodiversity and landscapes, public environmental expenditure
EPE - Implementation of data collection using web forms (2005), by European Commission
land use planning, agriculture, hunting, forests, fisheries, tourism
(2012) Feed-in tariffs for the generation of energy from waste incineration and landfill gas in Portugal
(2011) “green” measures included in Portugal’s fiscal stimulus package, environmentally related taxes, subsidies to agriculture and fisheries, tourist eco-charge, taxes on greenfield development
Pilot Study on Environmental Taxes
Corporate Income Tax incentives, certification incentives, Permanent Forest Fund, Ecological Fiscal Transfers, environmentally-related taxation and tax expenditures
Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Fundação Luso-Americana para o Desenvolvimento
trade and wildlife products
Environment Industry and Employment in Portugal, 1997 (2000) by European Commission
(2011) private environmental expenditure
(2010) Portugal 2010 review
Instituto Português de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento, I.P.
forest certification

San Marino

Spain
agri-environmental measures
Spain 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2006-2012)
Marco de Acción Prioritaria para la financiación de la Red Natura 2000 para el periodo 2014-2020, el Fondo Europeo Agrícola de Desarrollo Rural (FEADER), el Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) y el Fondo Social Europeo (FSE), el Fondo Europeo Marítimo y de la Pesca (FEMP) y el Programa Marco de Investigación
NBSAP1999, 2011
2012
Submission
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Climate assistance
Superficie Forestal Certificada (2008-2012)
Bancos de conservación de la naturaleza
(2014) el proyecto para la Valoración de los Activos Naturales en España (VANE) http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/conservacion-de-la-biodiversidad/valoracion-y-aspectoseconomicos-de-la-biodiversidad/cb_vae_valoracion_activos_naturales.aspx, la “Evaluación de Ecosistemas del Milenio de España”, http://www.ecomilenio.es/
(2014) Proyecto de Evaluación de Ecosistemas del Milenio en España, realizado por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid con el apoyo de la Fundación Biodiversidad del Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente. Resultados: www.ecomilenio.es
Cost-Benefit Analysis of the EBRO Water Transfer, wwf version
(2006) Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - National Hydrological Plan / Ebro water transfer works
(2005) Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests, by Statistical Office of Estonia
Central, autonomic and local biodiversity expenditure in millions of euros: 1559 (2006), 1783 (2007), 1833 (2008), 2217 (2009), 1624 (2010), 1380 (2011)
Submission 2012
Report
environmental expenditure
agriculture, rural development, forestry, fishing, regional and territorial development, transport, hunting, tourism and energy, international cooperation
(2014) 2008 Acuerdo por el que se aprueba el Plan de Contratación Pública Verde de la Administración General del Estado y sus Organismos Públicos, y las Entidades Gestoras de la Seguridad Social (http://www.magrama.gob.es/gl/ministerio/planes-estrategias/plan-de-contratacion-publica-verde/default.aspx)
La Ley 49/200237, de 23 de diciembre, de régimen fiscal de las entidades sin fines lucrativos y de los incentivos fiscales al mecenazgo en España. La Ley 42/2007, de 13 de diciembre: un examen metodológico sobre cómo abordar los incentivos contrarios a la conservación de la biodiversidad (las deducciones por cesión de usufructo a entidades sin ánimo de lucro que no estén sujetas a contraprestación, la exención del Impuesto de Bienes Inmuebles o el de Transmisiones Patrimoniales para adquisición de tierras para la conservación, la deducción del 25% sobre el Impuesto de la Renta de las Personas Físicas (IRPF) o del 35% sobre el Impuesto de Sociedades por donaciones para entidades que se dediquen a la conservación, o la exención del Impuesto de Transmisiones Patrimoniales para permutar terrenos entre una entidad conservacionista y un particular. Además, los gastos derivados de convenios de colaboración empresarial en actividades de conservación tendrán la consideración de gasto deducible a efectos de la determinación de la base imponible de los Impuestos sobre Sociedades y del rendimiento neto de las actividades económicas en el Impuesto sobre la Renta de las Personas Físicas, suprimiendo los límites que fijaba la ley anterior.)
(2012) Subsidies for vessel scrapping, irrigation subsidies in Spain
(2004) water pricing and charges, sectoral subsidies, environmentally related taxes, ecological fiscal reform
Measures and mechanisms to account for the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services in decision -making, including the review and updating of NBSAPs; valuation of natural assets of Spain and Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Spain; perverse incentives for sectors that can potentially affect biodiversity; positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity; collaboration with companies on ways and means to contribute to the national implementation of the Convention; sustainable consumption and production including Green Public Procurement Plan
Environmental tax system, general aid, application of European system
Plan de Contratación Pública Verde de la Administración General del Estado y sus Organismos Públicos y las Entidades Gestoras de la Seguridad Social
Fondo de Proyectos de Restauración Hidrológico-Forestal
Spanish Association of Foundations
"La Caixa" Foundation, Fundación BBVA, Fundación Biodiversidad
Skills for green jobs
direct environmental jobs, active environmental employment policy
(2014) “Iniciativa Española Empresa y Biodiversidad” http://www.fundacion-biodiversidad.es/empresaybiodiversidad/
(2014) Private and market biodiversity expenditure (2006-2011)
Counting private sector contribution
Multiple tax incentives for private reserves
Biodiversity enhancement through quarry restoration in LAFARGE experience
(2014) Plan Director de la Cooperación Española (2013-2016)
(2011) Spain 2011 review
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(2004) ODA and environment

Sweden
Rural Development Programme (2007-2013 and 2014-2020)
Blue mussel farming to improve water quality in Lysekil Municipality, agri-environmental programme – production of biodiversity by grazing
Swedish Environmental and Rural Development Programme
Approach for and experiences of mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services in Swedish development cooperation, Maria van Berlekom, LeadPolicy Specialist, Environment and Climate Change, 11 December 2016
Sweden 2014, 2014 II, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance (2011 -2012)
NBSAP1996
(2012) Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Biodiversity financing and safeguards: lessons learned and proposed guidelines, by Claudia Ituarte-Lima, SwedBio/Stockholm Resilience Centre
Climate assistance
(2013) Sweden review
Swedish International Development Authority
(2004) environmental development aid
Forestry certification within the Forest Steward Council (FSC) system and/or Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) (More than 60 percent of forest areas are certified). The area of organic agriculture is 15.7 % of arable land.
Forestry certification, organic coffee
Financing and Providing Global Public Goods: Expectations and Prospects (2001)
(2014) No net loss policies and offsetting in Sweden
(2010, 2011) Compensation in road building, Status 2011
National ecological compensation system
How much are we prepared to pay for a woodpecker
integration of economic objectives into environmental policy
The Value of Nature and the Nature of Value
Accounts for recreational and environmental functions of forests (2002), by European Commission
An Environmental Accountant’s Dilemma: Are Stumpage Prices Reliable Indicators of Resource Scarcity? (2003), by National Institute of Economic Research
Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting for Forests (2005), by Statistical Office of Estonia
Lessons Learned from Environmental Accounting (2000), by IUCN - The World Conservation Union
Manual for environmental and economic accounts for forestry: a tool for cross-sectoral policy analysis (2004), by FAO
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Nordic Natural Resource and Environmental Accounting (1996), by Statistics Sweden
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
Readings in International Environment Statistics (1993), by UNECE
The European framework for integrated environmental and economic accounting for forests - Results of pilot applications (1999), by European Commission
Forest Environmental and Economic Accounting (1997), by Statistics Sweden
SWEEA—Swedish environmental and economic accounts (1998), by Elsevier
Extended time series in the Swedish Environmental Accounts (1999), by Statistics Sweden
Constructing a partially environmentally adjusted net domestic product for Sweden 1993 and 1997 (2001), by National Institute of Economic Research
Environmental Accounts for Forests. Test of a proposed framework for Non--ESA-SNA Functions (2001), by Statistics Sweden
Uses of environmental accounts in Sweden (2001), by European Commission/Statistics Sweden
Swedish Environmental Accounts Integration (2002), by Statistics Sweden
Monetary green accounting and ecosystem services (2003), by National Institute of Economic Research
Recent development in Swedish Forest Accounts (2003), by Statistics Sweden
Structural decomposition of environmental accounts data - the Swedish case (2003), by European Commission

Refined Environmental protection expenditures in Sweden
Public environmental protection expenditures and subsidies in Sweden
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts in Sweden – a pilot application and analysis
Environmental Protection Expenditure – new data collection and additional information
budget appropriations that promote the environment rose from just over SEK 4bn to just under SEK 13bn annually in the period 1995–2006
public environmental expenditure
Refined Environmental protection expenditures in Sweden (2002), by European Commission
Public EPE and subsidies in Sweden (2005), by European Commission

agriculture, forestry, fisheries, physical planning

Subsidies
Improving the Environment through Reducing Subsidies (2000) - Effects of Government Subsidies on the Environment: the Case of Electricity and Newsprint Production from a Swedish Perspective
green tax shift, distributional effects of green tax shift, environmentally harmful subsidies, environmentally motivated subsidies
Environment taxes and environmentally harmful subsidies in Sweden (2000), by European Commission

(2012) Support for biofuels, reduction of exemptions from energy and CO2 taxes for certain fossil fuels in Sweden
Environmental taxes and environmentally harmful subsidies
Potentially environmentally harmful subsidies in Sweden
Subsidies in Sweden

employment effect of environmental policy, environmental employment market, Trade, timber, endangered species
The Environment Industry in Sweden, 1999 (2000), by European Commission
The Environment Industry in Sweden, 2000 (2000), by European Commission
Environmental Impact of Swedish Trade (2002), by Statistics Sweden
Business Initiatives
(2004) environmental management and initiatives, private environmental expenditure
(2004) local investment programmes, Swedish Export Credit Bank

Switzerland
Fostering Cooperation on Transboundary Waters: Success stories from SDC’s Global Programme Water (June 2016). The Global Programme Water (GPW) of the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) began in 2011, and has provided more than 15 million Swiss Francs to implement its innovative activities in collaboration with four implementing partners. Its third phase will run through 2018.
Switzerland 2014 (additional information.pdf), 2014 II, 2012 Report on Swiss Public and Private Financial Contributions
Climate assistance
2012
NBSAP2012
Submission
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
Biodiversity Finance Reporting Methodologies: Experiences from Switzerland
Switzerland submission on funding for biodiversity
2007
ecological payments
2002
Direct Payments for Biodiversity Provided by Swiss Farmers: An Economic Interpretation of Direct Democratic Decision (2002)
1998
Ecological Direct Payments as Agri-Environmental Incentives & Activities of the Foundation for the Conservation of Cultural Landscapes (1998)
Case studies of biodiversity markets for forest environmental services: Ecological compensation programme – biodiversity management contracts
Swiss Agricultural Policy: Objectives, tools, prospects
Ecological Compensation Areas (ECAs)
(2013) Switzerland review
Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation
(2007) development assistance related to environmental protection
Around 5,600 farms follow the provisions for organic farming (BioSuisse, 10%) and 20,000 those of IP Suisse, the association for environmentally friendly agriculture. These farms make targeted use of the agricultural policy direct payments incentives for additional ecological services (e.g. through the designation of additional ecological compensation areas) and obtain higher market prices for their products. If all farms were to fulfil the criteria of these labels, Swiss agriculture would have considerably fewer environmental deficits.
Sustainable forest management: Environmentally friendly, socially and economically sustainable forest management is documented through certification. Both of the certification systems (FSC and PEFC) are used in Switzerland. Approximately 53% of Switzerland's forest area is currently certified.189 In 2009, the certified area was highest, encompassing a total of 706'000 ha. Since then, the certified area has declined by 7% (2012), due to renounced recertification.
organic agriculture and quality labels
Organic farming, forest certification

ABS Management tool (ABS-MT) Update 2012; ABS within the scientific community Swiss Academy of Sciences SCNAT
The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
Economic value of the pollinating service provided by bees in Switzerland
Central, state and provincial, local and municipal biodiversity expenditure in millions of CHF: 578.6 (2006), 661.4 (2007), 684 (2008), 714.3 (2009), 740.7 (2010), 748.8 (2011), central and state 690.3 (2012)
Estimating Public and Private Financial Contributions to Biodiversity: submission 2012
Dépenses de protection de l’environnement des entreprises en 2003 - Premiers résultats
1998, 2009
allocation of federal funding to biodiversity, expenditure on protection of the environment
Dépenses de protection de l'environnement des entreprises en 2003 - Switzerland (2005), by European Commission
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission

Counting sectoral contributions
spatial development, transport and mobility, tourism and leisure, energy, hydropower and renewables, soils, defence, environment related taxes, innovation, research and training for sustainable development, agriculture, forests, inland waters, drylands, mountain ecosystems, trade
study on existing financial incentives (i.e. subsidies) having negative impacts on biodiversity (Ecoplan 2013): Finanzielle Anreize bezüglich Biodiversität optimieren. Studie im Auftrag des BAFU. Download: http://www.bafu.admin.ch/aktionsplan-biodiversitaet/12608/12621/12637/index.html?lang=de
Environment related taxes
environmentally related taxes, green tax reform, sectoral subsidies, green public procurement, eco-labels
(2012) Environmental protection expenditures in the business sector 2009
Counting private sector contributions
Best Practices in Sustainable Finance: Swiss Re

SwissFoundations Working Group on Environment
Anonymous foundation, Fondation Charles Léopold Mayer pour le progrès de l’Homme, Fondation Lombard Odier, Fondation pour une terre humaine, JMG Foundation, Mava Foundation, Oak Foundation, Sophie and Karl Binding Stiftung
(2014) Switzerland funds specific development projects and knowledge platforms for enhanced south-south cooperation and knowledge sharing: The Aid Effectiveness Network (SDC-AEnet) and the Agriculture and Food Security (A+FS) Network
Biodiversity trade: protection through use - Switzerland supports the approach adopted by CBD. Therefore, since 2002, Switzerland has developed and implemented the concept of “biotrade” in collaboration with UNCTAD: export products are promoted on the basis of local biological resources. At the same time, the sustainable management of the ecosystem is guaranteed. Since 2003 the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative has also hosted the BioTrade Facilitation Programme (BTFP), which focuses on enhancing sustainable bio-resources management, product development, value adding processing and marketing. The BTFP complements the UNCTAD BioTrade Initiative activities. It is currently in its second phase (BTFP II) with various partners implementing its objectives. Activities are funded by the Danish, Dutch and Swiss govern-ments (SECO).
environment and employment, trade, endangered species, forestry
(2014) NGOs, foundation, and academia biodiversity expenditure in million CHF: 112.2 (2006), 118.3 (2007), 124.7 (2008), 131.9 (2009), 142.3 (2010), 143.2 (2011), 142.6 (2012)
(2012) Counting funding from non-governmental organizations in millions of CHF: 168.3 (2010 - 1.086 CHF per US dollars)
Debt Reduction Facility

Turkey
agri-environmental policies
NBSAP2001, 2007
(2008) private sector initiatives
Organic Farming
organic agriculture
Budgetary allocations by national and local Governments as well as different sectoral ministries: 15 000 000 $ - 20 000 000 $ (2007)
expenditure on nature conservation and biodiversity protection
sectoral policy
Incentives
Seed capital: Externally financed development of premium bulb markets
environmentally-related taxes, environmentally harmful subsidies, user charges and pollution fees, environmentally-related financial assistance, the Bank of Provinces
NDF National Desertification Fund; TEMA The Foundation for Combating Erosion, Afforestation and Protection of Natural Assets; TKV Turkish Development Foundation
employment and the environment, trade and environment (endangered species)
Turkish International Cooperation and Development Agency (TIKA)
Turkish International Cooperation and Development Agency
Action, Space, and Innovation: The Next Decade of the Third Sector in Turkey, Third Sector Foundation of Turkey
Industrial Development Bank of Turkey (TSKB)

United Kingdom
2017
UK plans to bring 20 species back from brink of extinction. Efforts to save some of the UK’s rarest species from extinction are being backed by £4.6 million in lottery funding. A further 200 threatened species will also be helped by the funding from the National Lottery, including pine martens, large garden bumblebees, lesser butterfly orchids and hedgehogs. The money will support the Back from the Brink initiative to bring together leading charities and conservation bodies in the first nationwide coordinated effort to safeguard species from extinction and deliver conservation measures across England. The scheme aims to boost conservation efforts in 150 key habitats and landscapes, and recruit and teach more than 5,500 volunteers the skills they need to study, identify and look after threatened species.
(2016)
Summary of species abundance changes in the UK from 2015 to 2016 and long-term (over the entire time series; no. yrs max = 41) and short-term (last 10-years) changes. It had been the fourth-worst year overall with six species – the heath fritillary, grizzled skipper, wall, grayling, white-letter hairstreak and white admiral – all suffering their most dramatic declines in the 41 years since records began. Sixteen species saw increases with one remaining about the same, the annual survey found. The results show that butterflies are failing to cope with our changing climate and how we manage the environment. The gatekeeper was down 48 per cent on the year before, while other similarly widespread species like the meadow brown and wall butterfly (both down 31 per cent) also struggled. The white admiral, white-letter hairstreak and grayling numbers also fell by 59 per cent, 42 per cent and 27 per cent respectively. The heath fritillary, now found in just a few sites in southern England, fell by 27 per cent between 2015 and 2016, raising fears for its long-term future in the UK. Its numbers have fallen by 82 per cent in the last 10 years. On the positive side, the large blue, which was reintroduced after extinction in the UK, recorded its second best year on record with numbers up by 38 per cent on 2015 after conservation work to improve the type of grassland habitat the still-rare insect needs. The widespread red admiral recorded a rise of 86 per cent compared to 2015 and the clouded yellow, another mainly migrant species, saw its numbers rise by 35 per cent.
(2015)
Natural Capital Investments in England (Final Report 2015)
The State of Natural Capital: Protecting and Improving Natural Capital for Prosperity and Wellbeing, Third report to the Economic Affairs Committee, Natural Capital Committee
Developing Corporate Natural Capital Accounts, eftec, Final Report for the Natural Capital Committee, January 2015
(2014)
A PES Action Plan and a Best Practice Guide for PES schemes
United Kingdom 2014, including bilateral and multilateral official development assistance, other public funds (2006-2011)
expenditure on biodiversity in the UK and internationally. The indicator shows increases in the long term (since 2000-01), but decreases in the last five years. In 2012-13, £471 million of UK public sector funding was spent on UK biodiversity; this value has remained stable since 2011-12, having fallen from a peak in 2008-09. In the longer term, between 2000-01 and 2012-13, public sector spending on UK biodiversity increased by 76 per cent in real terms.
Woodland Carbon Code
Climate assistance
2013
Entry Level Stewardship - Environmental Stewardship Handbook, Fourth Edition, January 2013
Organic Entry Level Stewardship - Environmental Stewardship Handbook, Fourth Edition, January 2013
Higher Level Stewardship - Environmental Stewardship Handbook, Fourth Edition, January 2013
Feasibility of a Nitrogen PES Scheme in the Poole Harbour Catchment (2013)
Defra published the PES Action Plan and Best Practice Guide in May 2013. The Action Plan promotes practical and innovative development of PES schemes and considers the actions that can be taken to enable them. It considers capacity-building actions for Government, the key policy areas of opportunity for PES and the monitoring and evaluation needs of PES schemes. The Best Practice Guide collates a number of instructive domestic and international case studies demonstrating the various challenges and solutions associated with a PES approach. Defra is also supporting a number of PES pilot research projects to demonstrate the approach exploring the potential for PES in the domestic context.
2012
Rio marker (bio) 2002-2012
The Darwin Initiative, by Sally Cunningham, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), UK Government
London Conference on the Illegal Wildlife Trade
Rhino Impact Bonds: leveraging new upfront capital for conservation. Nigel Dudley, Zoological Society of London
NBSAP1994, 2007, 2011
The UK’s private climate finance support: mobilising private sector engagement in climate compatible development (2012)
2011
Barriers and Opportunities to the Use of Payments for Ecosystem Services (2011)
2010
Costs of the UK Biodiversity Action Plan - Update 2010
(2007)
An introductory guide to valuing ecosystem services, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2007. Key steps to be undertaken in valuing ecosystem services in a policy appraisal context: Establish the environmental baseline; Identify and provide qualitative assessment of the potential impacts of policy options on ecosystem services; Quantify the impacts of policy options on specific ecosystem services; Assess the effects on human welfare; Value the changes in ecosystem services. The case study: a flood and coastal erosion risk management scheme. Costing Biodiversity Priorities in the UK Overseas Territories (2007)
2005
Case Study of Payments for Environmental Services: the United Kingdom (2005)
2003
Costings for Species and Habitat Action Plans (2003)
2002
agri-environmental programmes, Country-side Stewardship
Initial Investigation of the Actual Costs of Implementing UK Biodiversity Action Plans (2002)
2001
Willingness to pay for the conservation and management of wild geese in Scotland (2001)
Capital Budgeting Decisions
UK Darwin Initiative
UK Flagship Species Fund
UK International Sustainable Development Fund
UK Overseas Territories Environment Programme
Environmental Stewardship Scheme
Agri-environment scheme - evolution of Agri-Environment Schemes in England; Entry Level Stewardship (ELS); Organic Entry Level Stewardship (OELS); Uplands Entry Level Stewardship (Uplands ELS); Higher Level Stewardship (HLS)
Study on Payment for Ecosystem Services
Payments for Ecosystem Services: A Best Practice Guide
Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Pilot on Flood Regulation in Hull
Developing place-based approaches for Payments for Ecosystem Services
Towards the development of a UK Peatland Code
Case studies for carbon sequestration markets: Emission Trading Group, North Sea gas flare emission "consent" trading, Greenergy – carbon certified electricity, Climate Care Warranties; Case studies for bundled environmental services: Environmentally sensitive area agreements
Direct payments for conservation in the UK: an example from the North York Moors
(2014) NGOs, foundation and academia biodiversity expenditure in GBP £m in 2012 prices: 202 (2010), 205 (2011)
(2014) Private and market biodiversity expenditure (2006-2011)
Partnershio with business and industry
Business opportunities in ecosystem markets
Business & Biodiversity: A guide for UK-based companies operating internationally
Business and Biodiversity: A UK Business guide for understanding and integrating nature conservation and biodiversity into environmental management systems
Can a financial instrument improve the management of natural ecosystems?
Is biodiversity a material risk for companies? An assessment of the exposure of FTSE sectors to biodiversity risk
Putting a bit back: A Guide to Nature Conservation for Small to Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Best Practices in Sustainable Finance: Co-operative Financial Services (CFS), Co-operative Insurance Services (CIS), Aviva, HSBC Holdings plc, Morley Fund Management, Royal Bank of Scotland Group, Charity Bank, Ecology Building Society
(2002) Private enterprise environmental reporting
(2010) United Kingdom review
Department for International Development
(2002) Development assistance and the environment
Organic farming, sustainable forestry certification
Climate Change: Financing Global Forests
The International Finance Facility (2005)
(2014) No net loss policies and offsetting in England
(2014) In April 2012, Government launched a biodiversity offsetting pilot scheme to test an approach to biodiversity offsetting in England. The six pilots finished at the end of March and will require several months of analysis before they can fully inform our thinking. In September 2013, Government launched a consultation on biodiversity offsetting and is considering responses. The Scottish Borders Biodiversity Offset scheme is an example of work that aims to compensate for the residual impacts of renewable development, in line with a ‘no net loss’ policy in the local development plan. This has delivered improved habitats for Black Grouse at a range of locations.
(2014) Biodiversity Offsets are being pilotted in England
(2010, 2011) Status, Status 2011
(2012) Guidance for offset providers, March 2012
(2011) Guiding principles for biodiversity offsetting, July 2011
(2011) Options Stage Impact Assessment: Offsetting the impact of development on biodiversity, June 2011
(2009) Scoping study for the design and use of biodiversity offsets in an English Context
(2010) Associated British Ports
(2003) Biodiversity offsets: mileage, methods and (maybe) markets: “Beyond carbon - emerging markets for ecosystem services” Katoomba VI
(2005) Biodiversity offsets: good for business and biodiversity? Presentation to IPIECA Biodiversity Working Group
Guidance for developers that would like to use offsetting
Distinctiveness Bands for the Biodiversity Offsetting Pilot
Metric for the biodiversity offsetting pilot in England
Costing potential actions to offset the impact of development on biodiversityannexes
Review of the Experience of Implementation by UK Stakeholders of Access and Benefit Sharing Arrangements
Value of potential marine protected areas in the UK to divers and sea anglers (2013)
Economic Values from Ecosystems
Health Values from Ecosystems
Shared Values for the Contributions Ecosystem Services Make to Human Well-being
UK Dependence on Non-UK Ecosystem Services
Valuing Changes in Ecosystem Services: Scenario Analyses
Economic analysis of cultural services(Appendix A)(Appendix B)
Valuing regulating services (climate regulation) from UK terrestrial ecosystems
Economic assessment of freshwater, wetland and floodplain
Economic assessment of the recreational value of ecosystems in GB
Evaluating provisioning ecosystem service values: a scenario analysis for the UK
The amenity value of the climate
Valuation of ecosystem services provided by UK woodlands
An introductory guide to valuing ecosystem services (2007)
Practical Guidelines for the Use of Value Transfer in Policy and Project AppraisalAnnex 1 – Protocol for Primary Valuation StudiesAnnex 2 – Assessing the Quality of Primary Valuation StudiesAnnex 3 – Glossary of Econometric TerminologyTechnical Report
Collating and evaluating research on the value of the environmentannexes
Valuing Improvements in Facilities at a Forest Recreation Site
Valuing Benefits of Changes in Upland Land Use Management
Valuing Environmental Benefits of a Flood Risk Management Scheme
Valuing Improvements in River Water Quality
Benefits of Designation of Marine Conservation Sites
Estimating Value for Money of National Park Expenditure
Using GIS in Valuing Ecosystem Impacts
Economic Valuation of the Benefits of Ecosystem Services delivered by the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (2011)
Towards a sustainable environment - UK natural capital and ecosystem economic accounting
Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Strategic Environmental Assessment: Lessons from Influential Cases - Wareham Managed Realignment, Climate policies and the “Stern” report (U.K., 2007)
An Economic Assessment of the Costs and Benefits of Natura 2000 Sites in Scotland (2004)
Case studies on valuation
Integrated Estates Management in the UK - Valuation of Conservation and Recreation Benefits
Revealing the Value of the Natural Environment in England (2004)
Valuing Management for Biodiversity in British Forests at the Forestry Commission
Valuing the Benefits of Biodiversity in Forests (2002)
The Economic, Social and Ecological Value of Ecosystem Services: A Literature Review
Valuing the Environment in the UK Overseas Territories: Training Workshop Proceedings
Developing measures for valuing changes in biodiversity (2004)
The Economic Value of Forest Ecosystems
Nature's role in sustaining economic development
Valuing the Environment in Small Islands: An Environmental Economics Toolkit
Ecological and Economic Importance of Bats
Economic Reasons for Conserving Wild Nature
Environmental Accounting in Theory and Practice (1998), by Kluwer Academic
National Accounts and the Environment - Papers and Proceedings from the Fourth Meeting of the London Group (1997), by Statistics Canada
Proceedings & Papers of the Ninth Meeting of The London Group on Environmental Accounting (2004), by Statistics Denmark
Readings in International Environment Statistics (1993), by UNECE
Valuing Damages for Green Accounting Purposes: The GARP II Approach (2000), by Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei
Scottish Forestry: an Input-Output Analysis (1999), by Forestry Commission Great Britain
Framework for Environmental Accounts for Agriculture (2004), by Department for Food and Rural Affairs
The impact of UK households on the environment through direct and indirect generation of greenhouse gases (2004), by European Commission
Environmental Accounts, 2011 (2011), by Office for National Statistics
Reflections on the National Debate on Measuring National Well-being (2011), by United Kingdom Office for National Statistics
UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011), by UNEP-WCMC
Measuring UK Woodland Area and Timber Resources (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)
Measuring UK Woodland Ecosystem Assets and Ecosystem Services (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)
Monetary Valuation of UK Timber Resources (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)
Towards Wealth Accounting - Natural Capital within Comprehensive Wealth (2013), by Office for National Statistics (ONS)
(2014) Public sector expenditure on biodiversity in the UK, 2000-1 to 2012-13.
(2014) Central and local biodiversity expenditure (GBP £m in 2012 prices): 2606 (2006), 3034 (2007), 2656 (2008), 3349 (2009), 3437 (2010), 2832 (2011)

In 2010-11, £459 million pounds of public sector funding was spent on UK biodiversity. Since 2000-1 public sector spending on UK biodiversity has increased by 79 per cent (at 2010/11 prices). Over the same period GDP increased by 17 per cent.
Public sector expenditure on UK and global biodiversity 2012
Indicators of funding of expenditure on biodiversity in the UK, and of UK Government funding on conservation of global biodiversity
Expenditure on the Farmland Birds PSA Target (2010)
Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01
Environmental Protection Expenditure by Industry: 2010 UK Survey
Environmental expenditure
Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts - Results of pilot applications (2002), by European Commission
Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01 (2002), by European Commission
Environmental protection expenditure by the UK general government sector 1996/97 to 2000/01 (2010), by United Kingdom Office for National Statistics
agriculture, woodlands, marine and coastal, water and wetlands, air quality, invasive non-native species, infrastructure development, climate change, public engagement
(2012) Eligibility criteria for CAP Pillar 1 direct payments, company car taxation, aggregates levy and landfill tax on construction and demolition waste in the UK
(2002) water pricing, environmental taxation and distributive effects, green taxes, transferable permits, tax relief and exemptions
(2004) Industrial analysis of environmental taxes (2004), by United Kingdom Office for National Statistics
(2006) UK environmental taxes: classification and recent trends (2006), by Office for National Statistics

(2011) Government revenues from environmental taxes (2011), by United Kingdom Office for National Statistics
Industrial analysis of environmental taxes
Review of Environmental Taxes in the UK Environmental Accounts
Landfill Tax Credit Scheme (LTCS); Gift Aid scheme; Study on tax incentives for sustainable housing
The Case for Green Fiscal Reform: Final Report of the UK Green Fiscal CommissionGreen Tax Commissions in Europe
Tax incentives for sustainable housing
Reforming Energy and Transport Subsidies: Environmental and Economic Implications - Electricity-Related Supports in the United Kingdom
UK Darwin Initiative; UK Flagship Species Fund; UK International Sustainable Development Fund; UK Overseas Territories Environment Programme; Bridge House Estates Trust Fund; Heritage Lottery Fund
An overview of charitable giving in the UK, 2011/12, by Charities Aid Foundation (CAF)
Legal and Tax Policy Environment, Charities Aid Foundation
Environmental Funders Network: Where the Green Grants Went: Patterns of UK Funding for Environmental and Conservation Work 2012
Top 50 Foundations with missions for environment/conservation/heritage: The British Council, The Arts Council of England, Nuffield Health, Cancer Research UK, The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, Cardiff University, The Charities Aid Foundation, Oxfam, The Save The Children Fund, United Church Schools Foundation Ltd, Anchor Trust, Wellcome Trust, Citb-Constructionskills, Barnardo's, British Heart Foundation, The Gavi Fund Affiliate, The British Red Cross Society, The Salvation Army Social Work Trust, The Girls' Day School Trust, Action for Children, Royal Mencap Society, The Royal National Lifeboat Institution, Swansea University, St Andrew's Healthcare, Royal Commonwealth Society for The Blind, AQA Education, Age UK, Leonard Cheshire Disability, UFI Charitable Trust, The Salvation Army, Church Commissioners for England, The Woodard Corporation, Marie Stopes International, Macmillan Cancer Support, Marie Curie Cancer Care, The Royal British Legion, The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children, The Rothschild Foundation, CFBT Education Trust, Peabody Trust, Trustees of the London Clinic Limited, Charity Projects, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Canterbury Christ Church University, Wakefield and District Housing Limited, City and Guilds of London Institute, The Royal National Institute of Blind People, Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, The Guinness Trust, Royal Opera House Covent Garden Limited
Remittance Markets
Natural Capital Coalition: http://www.naturalcapitalcoalition.org/
United Kingdom Ecosystem Markets Task Force
Skills for green jobs
Environment-related employment
Debt Conversion Scheme

U.S.A: Financing for Biodiversity

2017
Nordic Council of Ministers: Mobilizing climate finance flows: Nordic approaches and opportunities, by Mikko Halonen et al.
Doses of Neighborhood Nature: The Benefits for Mental Health of Living with Nature, by Daniel T. C. Cox, et al, BioScience (2017) 67 (2): 147-155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw173. The economic costs of anxiety and mood disorders, such as depression, have been estimated at €187.4 billion per year for Europe alone. Quantifiable reductions in the population prevalence of poor mental health can be achieved if minimal thresholds of vegetation cover are met.

2016
OECD: Monitoring and Evaluating Biodiversity Mainstreaming, Katia Karousakis and Galina Alova, OECD Environment Directorate and Development Co-operation. Revenue from biodiversity-related taxes in OECD countries = USD 6 billion per year. Only 0.7% of the total revenue from environmentally related taxes.
Report from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament under Article 18(2) of Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, (COM(2016) 204 final, 14.4.2016)
Evaluation of the Environmental Liability Directive Accompanying the document Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and to the Council pursuant to Article 18(2) of Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (SWD(2016) 121 final,14.4.2016), Commission Staff Working Document REFIT

2015
European Green Party: The Carbon Bubble: The financial risk of fossil fuels and need for divestment. The entire banking industry in the EU has invested in fossil fuels in the form of loans, bonds and shares, between €460bn and €480bn. The pension funds industry has invested in fossil fuels between €260bn and €330bn. The insurance companies as a whole have between €300bn and €400bn invested in oil, gas and coal. Together, banks, pension funds and insurance companies therefore have more than a trillion Euros invested in fossil fuels.
Insurance Europe: Survey of environmental liability insurance developments, Briefing note, June 2014

2013
EU: The Economic benefits of the Natura 2000 Network, Synthesis Report. The benefits that flow from Natura 2000 are of the order of €200 to 300 billion/year. There are between 1.2 to 2.2 billion visitor days to Natura 2000 sites each year, generating recreational benefits worth between €5 and €9 billion per annum.

2010
Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP): Costs and Socio-Economic Benefits associated with the Natura 2000 Network, Final report to the European Commission, DG Environment. Building on the results of the Member States questionnaire, the annual costs of implementing the Natura 2000 network were estimated as €5.8 billion per year for the EU-27. In Ireland, the total rate of return on government support to the Burren park was estimated (conservative) to be around 353 – 383%, (without or with tourism), and 235% if all operating costs of the farming programme and all direct payments are considered. The estimated 5.8 billion EUR/ year costs for managing Natura 2000 in the EU is around four times higher than the likely annual contribution of the present EU budget.
Skills for green jobs: European Synthesis Report (2010)
Private Forest Ownership in Europe

2009
Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP): Assessing Socio-economic Benefits of Natura 2000 – a Toolkit for Practitioners (September 2009 Edition). Output of the European Commission project Financing Natura 2000: Cost estimate and benefits of Natura 2000.

2007
Environmental accounts: State of play of recent work Report to Eurostat, Covering the period from 21 December 2006 to 21 December 2007

2005
Illegal Trade in Wildlife: a North American Perspective

Subregion
Financial Planning for Biodiversity in Northern Europe
Financial Planning for Biodiversity for Western Europe

  • United Nations
  • United Nations Environment Programme